Technical Requirements for Secure Access and Management of IoT Smart Terminals
draft-wang-secure-access-of-iot-terminals-01

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Bin Wang  , Song Liu  , Li Wan  , Jun Li  , Xing Wang 
Last updated 2021-03-18
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Internet Engineering Task Force                             B. Wang, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                               S. Liu, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track                             L. Wan, Ed.
Expires: 17 September 2021                                     Hikvision
                                                              J. Li, Ed.
                                                               CICS-CERT
                                                            X. Wang, Ed.
                                                               Hikvision
                                                           16 March 2021

  Technical Requirements for Secure Access and Management of IoT Smart
                               Terminals
              draft-wang-secure-access-of-iot-terminals-01

Abstract

   It is difficult to supervise the great deal of Internet of Things
   (IoT) smart terminals which are widely distributed.  Furthermore, a
   large number of smart terminals (such as IP cameras, access control
   terminals, traffic cameras, etc.) running on the network have high
   security risks in access control.  This draft introduces the
   technical requirements for access management and control of IoT smart
   terminals, which is used to solve the problem of personate and
   illegal connection in the access process, and enables users to
   strengthen the control of devices and discover devices that is
   offline in time, so as to ensure the safety and stability of smart
   terminals in the access process.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 17 September 2021.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  The Network Structure of IoT system . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Security Threats and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Current Technology Level  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Secure Access and Management of IoT Smart Terminals . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Framework of Secure Access Management . . . . . . . . . .   6
       5.1.1.  Sensing & Controlling Domain  . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.1.2.  Access & Management Domain  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.1.3.  Application & Service Domain  . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.1.4.  User Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.2.  Requirements for Device Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.1.  Requirements for Devices Access Authentication Identity
               Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.2.  Requirements for Access Status of Devices . . . . . .   9
       5.2.3.  Recommendation of Access Policy . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.3.  Requirements for Management of terminals  . . . . . . . .  10
     5.4.  Requirements for Access Log Audit . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   With the rapid development of the IoT and the IP-based communication
   system, a large number of terminals have been interconnected through
   the network.  Due to numerous branches of IoT network and the
   scattered distribution of smart terminals,it is difficult for human
   to supervise.  Therefore, how to ensure the full-time control and
   available of IoT network becomes a new problem.  A large number of
   smart terminals (such as IP cameras, access control terminals,
   traffic cameras and other dumb terminals), which running in the

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   network, have a large security risk in terms of security access
   control.  With the further development of the convergence of IoT
   systems and information network, if IoT smart terminals are once used
   by hackers, it is easy for hackers to penetrate the whole network
   through IoT smart terminals, causing core business systems unable to
   work and a large amount of confidential information to leak, which
   will bring huge loss.  Therefore, the establishment of a perfect
   access control mechanism and application control mechanism of smart
   terminals is an important part of the IoT security system.

   This draft outlines the technical requirements for secure access and
   management of smart terminals in the IoT to address the security
   threats and challenges that exist in the access process of terminals.
   We discuss the networking structure of common IoT smart terminals in
   Section 2.  Security threats and challenges faced in the access
   process of IoT smart terminals in will be clarified in Section 3.  In
   Section 4, we review the guidelines and regulations related to the
   access of IoT terminals.  In Section 5, we present the requirements
   for secure access and management of IoT smart terminals and describes
   in detail.  This draft provides a reference for IoT security access
   and management .

2.  The Network Structure of IoT system

   In general, IoT smart terminals are connected to the network through
   IoT gateway, and then the data of terminals is reported to the
   application center through IoT gateway, which builds the complete
   network.

   The diagram of an IoT system is shown in the figure below.  In the
   perception layer, four types of IoT smart terminals form four
   subsystems, which are video monitoring subsystem, access control
   subsystem, alarm subsystem and intercom subsystem.  The smart
   terminals in each subsystem are different.  In the video monitoring
   subsystem, the main terminals are IP cameras and intelligent cameras
   for collecting video and image data.  In the access control
   subsystem, the main terminals are turnstiles and vehicle access
   control hosts for collecting vehicle information.  In the alarm
   subsystem, the main terminals are alarm hosts, alarm keyboards and
   wireless alarm hosts, which are used to set alarm policies, issue
   alarm warnings and report alarm events, etc.  In the intercom
   subsystem, its main terminals are intercom hosts and individual
   equipment, which are used to collect voice data.  Through this
   figure, we can know that in the IoT system, smart terminals are
   heterogeneous and complex, and the data are aggregated into the
   application layer through the transport layer, which greatly
   increases the difficulty of the application layer to control the
   terminals in the sensing layer.

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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                      |
| Application                                           +------------+ |
|   Layer                   +--------+                  | Video      | |
|              +--------+   | Storage|    +-------+     | integrated | |
|              |  HOST  |   | system |    |  DVI  +-----+ platform   | |
|              +---+----+   +---+----+    +---+---+     +------+-----+ |
|                  |            |             |                |       |
|                  |            |             |                |       |
+------------------+------------+--+----------+----------------+-------+
|                                  |                                   |
|                                  |                                   |
| Transport                  +-----+----+                              |
|   Layer                    |  router  |                              |
|                            +-----+----+                              |
|                                  |                                   |
|             +------------------+-+------------+----------------+     |
|             |                  |              |                |     |
|           +-+-------+     +----+----+    +----+----+     +-----+---+ |
|           | gateway |     | gateway |    | gateway |     | gateway | |
|           +-+-------+     +----+----+    +----+----+     +-----+---+ |
|             |                  |              |                |     |
|             |                  |              |                |     |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|             |                  |              |                |     |
+-------------+--+ +-------------+--+  +--------+-----+ +--------+-----+
|     Video      | |     Access     |  |    Alarm     | |   Intercom   |
|   surveillance | |     control    |  |  subsystem   | |   subsystem  |
|    subsystem   | |    subsystem   |  | +----------+ | |              |
| +------------+ | | +------------+ |  | |Alarm host| | | +----------+ |
| | IP camera  | | | |  Turnstile | |  | +----------+ | | |Intercom  | |
| +------------+ | | +------------+ |  | |   Alarm  | | | |  host    | |
| | Ip Camera  | | | |   Vehicle  | |  | | keyboard | | | +----------+ |
| +------------+ | | |   access   | |  | +----------+ | | |Individual| |
| |Smart Camera| | | |control host| |  | | Wireless | | | |equipment | |
| +------------+ | | +------------+ |  | |alarm host| | | |          | |
+----------------+ +----------------+  | +----------+ | | +----------+ |
|                                      +--------------+ +--------------+
|   Perception                                                         |
|     Layer                                                            |
|                                                                      |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

           Figure 1: The Network Structure of an IoT System

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3.  Security Threats and Challenges

   The main security threats and challenges in the process of accessing
   IoT smart terminals are as follows:

   1.  Illegal connection: By IoT smart terminals, illegal devices and
       hosts may access to the network for probing and attacking.  The
       application layer network may be invaded by smart terminals,
       which will lead to information leakage.

   2.  Personate connection: Wide distribution of IoT smart terminals
       and the public deployment environment make it easy for malicious
       devices to impersonate legitimate devices and upload fake data,
       which will lead to abnormal function of the devices and causes
       great damage to the security of IoT.

   3.  Devices offline: IoT smart terminals are numerous and very
       vulnerable when they suffer from physical attacks, network
       anomalies, power supply anomalies, and aging of device, which
       leads them to work offline.  However, offline devices are
       difficult to discover, causing the loss of some functions.

   4.  Devices management: There are many kinds of IoT smart terminals,
       and it is often not clear how many IoT smart terminals are in the
       whole IoT network and how many IoT smart terminals have security
       problems, which leads to unable to control IoT smart terminals
       and sort out device assets.

4.  Current Technology Level

   1.  On the access control of IoT,many control protocols applied to
       IoT smart terminals have been proposed, such as Zigbee [ZB], DALI
       [DALI], BACNET [BACNET], which do not contribute to the secure
       access of IoT devices.  The UPnP [ISOIEC23941] access protocol
       defines the access to IoT smart terminals, but does not consider
       the issue of secure access.

   2.  There are many specialized and generic security protocols being
       used in current IP-based deployments of IoT smart device
       applications.  For example, IPsec [RFC7296], TLS [RFC8446], DTLS
       [RFC6347], HIP [RFC7401], Kerberos [RFC4120], SASL [RFC4422], and
       EAP [RFC3748], etc.  However, these protocols also can not
       protect against illegal connection, personate connection and
       offline encountered during device access.

   3.  There are also a number of groups that focus on IoT device
       security . For example, the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
       recommended that when enterprises build the IoT network, they

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       should strengthen IoT smart device authentication/authorization
       [CSA].  The Global System for Mobile communications Association
       (GSMA) has published a security guide for IoT systems [GSMA] to
       bring a set of security guidelines to the research of IoT
       security product.  The United States Department of Homeland
       Security(DHS) has proposed six IoT security strategic principles
       [DHS] to guide IoT developers, manufacturers, service providers,
       and consumers in considering security issues.  These teams give
       good advice on building security for the IoT, but there is no
       introduction or description of secure access to the IoT.

   4.  The current security standards on IoT, such as [RFC8576],
       introduce the security issues and solutions, but there is no
       mention of the problems and solutions in the access process of
       smart terminals.

   5.  In other related device access standards, there are device access
       and portal-based authentication based on 802.1x [ISO88021X].
       However, due to IoT smart terminals are mainly dumb terminals,
       they are not suitable for authentication access through 802.1x or
       portal, and the two authentication methods cannot be used to
       solve the illegal and personate connection of devices.

5.  Secure Access and Management of IoT Smart Terminals

5.1.  Framework of Secure Access Management

   Comparing to three-layer framework of IoT,a layer of access and
   management is added for the framework of secure access management,
   which is between transport layer and application layer.  The
   framework of secure access management for IoT smart terminals is
   shown in the following figure.  In this framework, the access process
   of IoT is divided into four parts, which are sensing&control domain,
   access&management domain, application&service domain and user domain.
   Among them, access&management domain is the specific implementation
   of the secure access and management technical requirements to ensure
   secure access of smart terminals in terms of smart terminals
   management, access control, strategy management and access log audit.

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+-------------------------------------------------------User Domain----+
|      Application & Service Domain                                    |
| +------------------+    +------------------+   +-------------------+ |
| |Bussiness System 1|    |Bussiness System 2|   |Bussiness System...| |
| +------------------+    +------------------+   +-------------------+ |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
           ^                ^                ^
           |                |                |
+----------+----------------+----------------+----------User Domain----+
|                     Access & Management Domain                       |
| +-----------------+-----------------+----------------+-------------+ |
| |      Device     |  Device Access  |  Access Policy |  Log Audit  | |
| |    Management   | +-------------+ |   Management   |             | |
| |                 | |  Unique id  | |                |             | |
| |                 | | information | |                |             | |
| | +-----+-------+ | +-------------+ | +------------+ |             | |
| | | IP  | Port& | | |  Trusted    | | |   IP&MAC   | | +---------+ | |
| | |     |Service| | |communication| | +------------+ | |Exception| | |
| | +-------------+ | |  protocol   | | |IP&MAC&Brand| | +---------+ | |
| | |Type | Brand | | +-------------+ | +------------+ | |Behavior | | |
| | +-------------+ | | Certificate | | |IP&MAC&Brand| | +---------+ | |
| | |Model|  MAC  | | |   access    | | |   &Model   | | |Operation| | |
| | +-------------+ | +-------------+ | +------------+ | +---------+ | |
| +------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                    Indirect  ^             ^           ^ Direct
                    connection|             |           | connection
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Sensing &                 +-----------+   |           |              |
| Controlling               |IoT Gateway|   |           |              |
|   Domain                  +------^----+   |           |              |
|                                  |        |           |              |
| +------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
| | +---------+   +---------+   +--------+  |  +------+ |   +------+ | |
| | |RS-485   |   |Zigbee   |   |IP/WIFI/|  |  |Video | |   |Smart | | |
| | |RS232    |   |Lora and |   |5G/4G   |  |  |and   | |   |IP    | | |
| | |and other|   |other    |   |smart   +--+  |Audio +-+   |Camera| | |
| | |wired    |   |wireless |   |device  |     |device|     +------+ | |
| | |terminals|   |terminals|   +--------+     |RFID  |              | |
| | +---------+   +---------+                  +------+              | |
| +------------------------------------------------------------------+ |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

 Figure 2: Framework of Secure Access Management for Smart Terminals

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5.1.1.  Sensing & Controlling Domain

   Smart Terminals: include RS-485, RS-232 and other wired terminals,
   zigberr, Lora and other wireless terminals, smart IP, WiFi, 5g, 4G
   smart devcie, audio and video device and RFID, etc.

   IOT Gateway: Be able to store data, compute and transform protocol,
   an entity used to connect smart terminals and terminals of upper
   layer.

   Among them, smart terminals can be directly connected with the
   access&management domain, or indirectly connected with the access and
   management domain through the Internet of things gateway.

5.1.2.  Access & Management Domain

   Access and management domain is the core, which is used to manage and
   control the access of smart terminals, including four parts: device
   management, device access, access policy management and log audit.

   The contents of each part clarified as follows:

   Device Management: It mainly manages device asset information,
   including IP address, MAC address, type of device, brand, model, open
   port and service of smart terminals.

   Device Access: Refers to the device access mode supported by smart
   terminals, including access based on unique identification
   information of smart terminal (the composition of unique
   identification information of device can be one or more sets of
   device asset information managed by device), access based on trusted
   communication protocol of smart terminal and access based on
   certificate authentication.

   Access Policy Management: Refers to the access policy management
   based on the unique identification information of smart terminals,
   including: IP, MAC access policy; IP, MAC, manufacturer access
   policy; IP, MAC, manufacturer, model access policy.

   Log Audit: Used to record, store and audit the log information
   generated in the access process of smart terminals, including
   exception log audit, behavior log audit and operation log audit.

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5.1.3.  Application & Service Domain

   Application & service domain is the core business system, which
   provides informational application services for information
   collecting, exchanging and processing.  The information provided by
   the smart terminals that verified by the access & management domain
   to ensure security and stability of the system.

5.1.4.  User Domain

   User domain is the users of smart terminals, they can directly access
   the core business system in the application & service domain, and
   access & management domain to view the access condition of smart
   terminals and manage them.

5.2.  Requirements for Device Access

5.2.1.  Requirements for Devices Access Authentication Identity
        Information

   The identity information of devices access authentication should
   include one or more of the following characteristics:

   1.  IP address

   2.  address

   3.  brand

   4.  type

   5.  model

   6.  firmware version

5.2.2.  Requirements for Access Status of Devices

   There should be at least four types of access status:

   1.  Online: The device that has authenticated and is working well.

   2.  Offline: The device that has authenticated but is not connected
       to network.

   3.  Personate: A device that can not authenticate and its
       authentication information is the same as other authenticated
       device.

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   4.  Illegal connection: A device that fails to authenticate and its
       authentication information is different from other authenticated
       device.

5.2.3.  Recommendation of Access Policy

   1.  The device access policy can be at least five combinations:

   a.  IP + MAC

   b.  IP + Mac + manufacturer

   c.  IP + Mac + manufacturer + model

   d.  IP + Mac + manufacturer + model + type

   e.  IP + Mac + manufacturer + model + type + firmware version

   2.  Quickly discover the access of personate and illegal connection,
       and prevent illegal control of devices.

   3.  The configuration of access policy can be done manually and
       automatically

   4.  Device access policy can be customized as any combination of
       recommendation of access policy shown in requirement 3.

5.3.  Requirements for Management of terminals

   Device management requires to monitor status of terminals in real
   time, to profile terminals, to identify and manage applications
   running on terminals, to identify and manage asset information of
   terminals, and to manage IP addresses of terminals.

   1.  Requirements for condition monitoring and management of terminals

       1.  It should be able to monitor the offline and online status of
           smart terminals in real time

       2.  It should be able to discover whether there is a weak
           password information of the smart terminal

       3.  It should be able to discover the risky ports of smart
           terminals

       4.  It should be able to alert offline devices or the devices
           with weak passwords and risky ports

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   2.  Requirements for the management of terminal profiling

       1.  It should be able to visualize information of smart
           terminals, including device type, IP address, open ports,
           etc.

   3.  Requirements for the management of identifying applications

       1.  It should be able to automatically identify and manage the
           device's open services and service ports

       2.  It should be able to automatically discover and identify the
           application system of B/S architecture or CS architecture
           running in the network where the IoT smart terminal is
           located, including: service IP, service port, application
           name

   4.  Requirements for the management of identifying asset information
       of the device

       1.  It should be able to manage IP address, MAC address, device
           manufacturer, device model, device type, device firmware
           version number, device open port, and device online time for
           smart terminals

       2.  It should be able to manage the communication protocol
           information of geographic location information of terminals

5.4.  Requirements for Access Log Audit

   Access log audit requires the ability to audit all types of
   operations, such as abnormal and malicious behavior of access.

   1.  It should record abnormal behavior log information of access in
       real time and to provide analysis and audit functions.

   2.  It should record malicious behavior log information of access in
       real time and to provide analysis and audit functions.

   3.  It should record the management, access and blocking of access
       devices and other types of operations in real time , and can
       provide analysis and audit functions

6.  Security Considerations

   This entire memo deals with security issues.

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7.  IANA Considerations

   This documents has no IANA actions.

8.  Informative References

   [BACNET]   American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
              Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), "BACnet",
              <http://www.bacnet.org>.

   [CSA]      "Security Guidance for Early Adopters of the Internet of
              Things (IoT)", 2015,
              <https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/whitepapers/S
              ecurity_Guidance_for_Early_Adopters_of_the_Internet_of_Thi
              ngs.pdf>.

   [DALI]     "DALI Explained", <http://www.dalibydesign.us/dali.html>.

   [DHS]      "Strategic Principles For Securing the Internet of Things
              (IoT)", 2016,
              <https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/
              Strategic_Principles_for_Securing_the_Internet_of_Things-
              2016-1115-FINAL....pdf>.

   [GSMA]     "GSMA IoT Security Guidelines and Assessment",
              <http://www.gsma.com/connectedliving/future-iot-networks/
              iot-security-guidelines>.

   [ISO88021X]
              ISO/IEC/IEEE, "Telecommunications and exchange between
              information technology systems - Requirements for local
              and metropolitan area networks - Part 1X: Port-based
              network access control".

   [ISOIEC23941]
              ISO/IEC, "IoT management and control device control
              protocol".

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, Ed., "Extensible Authentication Protocol
              (EAP)", DOI 10.17487/RFC3748, June 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3748>.

   [RFC4120]  Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The
              Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)",
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4120, July 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4120>.

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   [RFC4422]  Melnikov, A., Ed. and K. Zeilenga, Ed., "Simple
              Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)",
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4422, June 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4422>.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", DOI 10.17487/RFC6347, January 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.

   [RFC7296]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.

   [RFC7401]  Moskowitz, R., Ed., Heer, T., Jokela, P., and T.
              Henderson, "Host Identity Protocol Version 2 (HIPv2)",
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7401, April 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7401>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8576]  Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., and M. Sethi, "Internet of
              Things (IoT) Security: State of the Art and Challenges",
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8576, April 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8576>.

   [ZB]       "Zigbee Alliance", 2020, <http://www.zigbee.org/>.

Authors' Addresses

   Bin Wang (editor)
   Hikvision
   555 Qianmo Road, Binjiang District
   Hangzhou
   310051
   China

   Phone: +86 571 8847 3644
   Email: wbin2006@gmail.com

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   Song Liu (editor)
   Hikvision
   555 Qianmo Road, Binjiang District
   Hangzhou
   310051
   China

   Phone: +86 571 8847 3644
   Email: achelics@gmail.com

   Li Wan (editor)
   Hikvision
   555 Qianmo Road, Binjiang District
   Hangzhou
   310051
   China

   Phone: +86 571 8847 3644
   Email: dzwanli@126.com

   Jun Li (editor)
   CICS-CERT
   No.35, Lugu Rd., Shijingshan Dist
   Beijing
   100040
   China

   Email: lijun@cics-cert.org.cn

   Xing Wang (editor)
   Hikvision
   555 Qianmo Road, Binjiang District
   Hangzhou
   310051
   China

   Phone: +86 571 8847 3644
   Email: xing.wang.email@gmail.com

Wang, et al.            Expires 17 September 2021              [Page 14]