GPS-Based Addressing and Routing
RFC 2009

Document Type RFC - Experimental (November 1996; No errata)
Was draft-rfced-exp-navas (individual)
Last updated 2013-03-02
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Network Working Group                                 T. Imielinski
Request for Comments: 2009                                 J. Navas
Category: Experimental                           Rutgers University
                                                      November 1996

                    GPS-Based Addressing and Routing

Status of this Memo

   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any
   kind.  Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

IANA Note:

   This document describes a possible experiment with geographic
   addresses.  It uses several specific IP addresses and domain names in
   the discussion as concrete examples to aid in understanding the
   concepts.  Please note that these addresses and names are not
   registered, assigned, allocated, or delegated to the use suggested
   here.

Table of Contents

   1.      Introduction......................................    2
   1b.             General Architecture......................    3
   1c.             Scenarios of Usage: Interface Issues......    3
   2.      Addressing Model..................................    4
   2a.             Using GPS for Destination Addresses.......    5
   3.      Routing...........................................    7
   3a.              GPS Multicast Routing Scheme (GPSM)......    7
   3a-i.                   Multicast Trees...................    8
   3a-ii.                  Determining the GPS Multicast
                           Addressing........................   10
   3a-iii.                 Building Multicast Trees..........   11
   3a-iv.                  Routing...........................   12
   3a-v.                   DNS Issues........................   12
   3a-vi.                  Estimations.......................   12
   3b.              "Last Mile"  Routing.....................   13
   3b-i.                   Application Level Filtering.......   13
   3b-ii.                  Multicast Filtering...............   13
   3b-iii.                 Computers on Fixed Networks.......   14
   3c.              Geometric Routing Scheme (GEO)...........   14
   3c-i.                   Routing Overview..................   14
   3c-ii.                  Supporting Long-Duration GPScasts.   16
   3c-iii.                 Discovering A Router's Service Area  17

Imielinski & Navas            Experimental                      [Page 1]
RFC 2009            GPS-Based Addressing and Routing       November 1996

   3c-iv.                  Hierarchical Router Structure and
                           Multicast Groups..................   18
   3c-v.                   Routing Optimizations.............   19
   3c-vi.                  Router-Failure Recovery Scheme....   19
   3c-vii.                 Domain Name Service Issues........   20
   4.      Router Daemon and Host Library....................   21
   4a.             GPS Address Library - SendToGPS().........   21
   4b.             Establishing A Default GPS Router.........   22
   4c.             GPSRouteD.................................   22
   4c-i.                  Configuration......................   23
   4d.             Multicast Address Resolution Protocol (MARP) 23
   4e.             Internet GPS Management Protocol (IGPSMP).   24
   5.      Working Without GPS Information...................   25
   5a.             Users Without GPS Modules.................   25
   5b.             Buildings block GPS radio frequencies
                   What then?................................   25
   6.      Application Layer Solution........................   25
   7.      Reliability.......................................   26
   8.      Security Considerations...........................   27
   9.      References........................................   27
   10.     Authors' Addresses................................   27

1.      Introduction

   In the near future GPS will be widely used allowing a broad variety
   of location dependent services such as direction giving, navigation,
   etc. In this document we propose a family of protocols and addressing
   methods to integrate GPS into the Internet Protocol to enable the
   creation of location dependent services such as:

     o     Multicasting selectively only to specific geographical
           regions defined by latitude and longitude. For example,
           sending an emergency message to everyone who is currently
           in a specific area, such as a building or train station.

     o     Providing a given service only to clients who are within a
           certain geographic range from the server (which may be mobile
           itself), say within 2 miles.

     o     Advertising a given service in a range restricted way, say,
           within 2 miles from the server,

Imielinski & Navas            Experimental                      [Page 2]
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