Secure IoT Bootstrapping: A Survey
draft-sarikaya-t2trg-sbootstrapping-08

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Network Working Group                                           M. Sethi
Internet-Draft                                                  Ericsson
Intended status: Informational                               B. Sarikaya
Expires: September 10, 2020                          Denpel Informatique
                                                      D. Garcia-Carrillo
                                                          Odin Solutions
                                                           March 9, 2020

                   Secure IoT Bootstrapping: A Survey
                 draft-sarikaya-t2trg-sbootstrapping-08

Abstract

   This draft provides an overview of the various terms that are used
   when discussing bootstrapping of devices.  We document terms that
   have been used within the IETF as well as other standards bodies.  We
   investigate if the terms refer to the same phenomena or have subtle
   differences.  We provide recommendations on the applicability of
   terms in different contexts.  Finally, this document presents a
   survey of secure bootstrapping mechanisms available for smart objects
   that are part of an Internet of Things (IoT) network.  The survey
   does not prescribe any one mechanism and rather presents IoT
   developers with different options to choose from, depending on their
   use-case, security requirements, and the user interface available on
   their smart objects.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2020.

Sethi, et al.          Expires September 10, 2020               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft         IoT Bootstrapping Analysis             March 2020

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Usage of terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Device Provisioning Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Lightweight M2M (LwM2M)  . . .   5
     3.3.  Open Connectivity Foundation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Internet Engineering Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.4.1.  Enrollment over Secure Transport (EST)  . . . . . . .   6
       3.4.2.  Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key Infrastructures
               (BRSKI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.4.3.  Secure Zero Touch Provisioning  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Comparsion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Classification of available mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  IoT Device Bootstrapping Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.1.  Managed Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       7.1.1.  Bootstrapping in LPWAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.2.  Peer to Peer or Adhoc Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.3.  Leap-of-faith/Opportunistic Methods . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   11. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

1.  Introduction

   We informally define bootstrapping as "any process that takes place
   before a device can become operational".  While bootstrapping is
   necessary for all computing devices, until recently, most of our
   devices typically had sufficient computing power and user interface
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