Architectural Principles for a Quantum Internet
draft-irtf-qirg-principles-04

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Quantum Internet Research Group                             W. Kozlowski
Internet-Draft                                                 S. Wehner
Intended status: Informational                                    QuTech
Expires: January 13, 2021                                   R. Van Meter
                                                         Keio University
                                                              B. Rijsman
                                                              Individual
                                                       A. S. Cacciapuoti
                                                              M. Caleffi
                                        University of Naples Federico II
                                                             S. Nagayama
                                                           Mercari, Inc.
                                                           July 12, 2020

            Architectural Principles for a Quantum Internet
                     draft-irtf-qirg-principles-04

Abstract

   The vision of a quantum internet is to fundamentally enhance Internet
   technology by enabling quantum communication between any two points
   on Earth.  To achieve this goal, a quantum network stack should be
   built from the ground up as the physical nature of the communication
   is fundamentally different.  The first realisations of quantum
   networks are imminent, but there is no practical proposal for how to
   organise, utilise, and manage such networks.  In this memo, we
   attempt to lay down the framework and introduce some basic
   architectural principles for a quantum internet.  This is intended
   for general guidance and general interest, but also to provide a
   foundation for discussion between physicists and network specialists.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 13, 2021.

Kozlowski, et al.       Expires January 13, 2021                [Page 1]
Internet-Draft      Principles for a Quantum Internet          July 2020

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Quantum information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Qubit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Multiple qubits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Entanglement as the fundamental resource  . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Achieving quantum connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Challenges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.1.  The measurement problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.2.  No-cloning theorem  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.3.  Fidelity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.4.  Inadequacy of direct transmission . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Bell pairs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Teleportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  The life cycle of entanglement  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.1.  Elementary link generation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.2.  Entanglement swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.4.3.  Error Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.4.4.  Delivery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  Architecture of a quantum internet  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.1.  Challenges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.2.  Classical communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.3.  Abstract model of the network . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
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