Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) and Congestion Feedback Using the Network Service Header (NSH) and IPFIX
draft-ietf-sfc-nsh-ecn-support-05

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (sfc WG)
Authors Donald Eastlake  , Bob Briscoe  , Li Yizhou  , Andy Malis  , Xinpeng Wei 
Last updated 2021-04-02
Replaces draft-eastlake-sfc-nsh-ecn-support
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INTERNET-DRAFT                                               D. Eastlake
Intended status: Proposed Standard                Futurewei Technologies
                                                              B. Briscoe
                                                             Independent
                                                                   Y. Li
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                                 A Malis
                                                        Malis Consulting
                                                                  X. Wei
                                                     Huawei Technologies
Expires: October 1, 2021                                   April 2, 2021

     Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) and Congestion Feedback
            Using the Network Service Header (NSH) and IPFIX
                <draft-ietf-sfc-nsh-ecn-support-05.txt>

Abstract

   Explicit congestion notification (ECN) allows a forwarding element to
   notify downstream devices of the onset of congestion without having
   to drop packets. Coupled with a means to feed information about
   congestion back to upstream nodes, this can improve network
   efficiency through better congestion control, frequently without
   packet drops. This document specifies ECN and congestion feedback
   support within a Service Function Chaining (SFC) architecture domain
   through use of the Network Service Header (NSH, RFC 8300) and IP Flow
   Information Export (IPFIX, RFC 7011).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the SFC Working Group mailing list <sfc@ietf.org> or to the
   authors.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 1]
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html. The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 2]
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Table of Contents

      1. Introduction............................................4
      1.1 NSH Background.........................................4
      1.2 ECN Background.........................................6
      1.3 Tunnel Congestion Feedback Background..................6
      1.4 Conventions Used in This Document......................8

      2. The NSH ECN Field......................................10

      3. ECN Support in the NSH.................................12
      3.1 At The Ingress........................................13
      3.2 At Transit Nodes......................................14
      3.2.1 At NSH Transit Nodes................................14
      3.2.2 At an SF/Proxy......................................15
      3.2.3 At Other Forwarding Nodes...........................15
      3.3 At Exit/Egress........................................16
      3.4 Conservation of Packets...............................16

      4. Tunnel Congestion Feedback Support.....................18
      4.1 Congestion Level Measurement..........................18
      4.3 Congestion Information Delivery.......................19
      4.3 IPFIX Extensions......................................21
      4.3.1 nshServicePathID....................................21
      4.3.2 tunnelEcnCeCeByteTotalCount.........................21
      4.3.3 tunnelEcnEctNectBytetTotalCount.....................22
      4.3.4 tunnelEcnCeNectByteTotalCount.......................22
      4.3.5 tunnelEcnCeEctByteTotalCount........................22
      4.3.6 tunnelEcnEctEctByteTotalCount.......................23
      4.3.7 tunnelEcnCEMarkedRatio..............................23

      5. Example of Use.........................................24

      6. IANA Considerations....................................27
      6.1 SFC NSH Header ECN Bits...............................27
      6.2 IPFIX Information Element IDs.........................27

      7. Security Considerations................................29
      8. Acknowledgements.......................................29

      Normative References......................................30
      Informative References....................................31

      Authors' Addresses........................................32

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 3]
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1. Introduction

   Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN [RFC3168]) allows a forwarding
   element to notify downstream devices of the onset of congestion
   without having to drop packets. Coupled with a means to feed
   information about congestion back to upstream nodes, this can improve
   network efficiency through better congestion control, frequently
   without packet drops. This document specifies ECN and congestion
   feedback support within a Service Function Chaining (SFC [RFC7665])
   architecture domain through use of the Network Service Header (NSH
   [RFC8300]) and IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX [RFC7011]).

   It requires that all ingress and egress nodes of the SFC domain
   implement ECN. While congestion management will be the most effective
   if all interior nodes of the SFC domain implement ECN, some benefit
   is obtained even if some interior nodes do not implement ECN.
   Congestion at any interior bottleneck where ECN marking is not
   implemented will be unmanaged.

   The subsections below in this section provide background information
   on NSH, ECN, congestion feedback, and terminology used in this
   document.

1.1 NSH Background

   The Service Function Chaining (SFC [RFC7665]) architecture calls for
   the encapsulation of traffic within a service function chaining
   domain with a Network Service Header (NSH [RFC8300]) added by the
   "Classifier" (ingress node) on entry to the domain and the NSH being
   removed on exit from the domain at the egress node. The NSH is used
   to control the path of a packet in an SFC domain. The NSH is a
   natural place, in a domain where traffic is NSH encapsulated, to note
   congestion, avoiding possible confusion due, for example, to changes
   in the outer transport header in different parts of the domain.

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 4]
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                  |
                  v
             +----------+
          . .|Classifier|. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
          .  +----------+                          .
          .       |          +----+                .
          .       |        --+ SF |     Service    .
          .       |       /  +----+     Function   .
          .       v    ---              Chaining   .
          .    +-----+/       +----+    domain     .
          .    | SFF |--------+ SF |               .
          .    +-----+\       +----+               .
          .       |    ---                         .
          .       |       \  +----+                .
          .       |        --+ SF |                .
          .       v          +----+                .
          .    +-----+                 +----+      .
          .    | SFF |-----------------+ SF |      .
          .    +-----+                 +----+      .
          .       |          +----+                .
          .       |        --+ SF |                .
          .       |       /  +----+                .
          .       v    ---                         .
          .    +-----+/       +----+               .
          .    | SFF |--------+ SF |               .
          .    +-----+\       +----+               .
          .       |    ---                         .
          .       |       \  +----+                .
          .       |        --+ SF |                .
          .       v          +----+                .
          .    +------+                            .
          . . .| Exit |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
               +------+
                  |
                  v

                Figure 1. Example SFC Path Forwarding Nodes

   Figure 1 shows an SFC domain for the purpose of illustrating the use
   of the NSH. Traffic passes through a sequence of Service Function
   Forwarders (SFFs) each of which sends the traffic to one or more
   Service Functions (SFs). Each SF performs some operation on the
   traffic, for example firewall or Network Address Translation (NAT) or
   load balancer, and then returns it to the SFF from which it was
   received.

   Logically, during the transit of each SFF, the outer transport header
   that got the packet to the SFF is stripped (see Figure 3), the SFF
   decides on the next forwarding step, either adding a new transport

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 5]
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   header or, if the SFF is the exit/egress, removing the NSH header.
   The transport headers added may be different in different regions of
   the SFC domain. For example, IP could be used for some SFF-to-SFF
   communication and MPLS used for other such communication.

1.2 ECN Background

   Explicit congestion notification (ECN [RFC3168]) allows a forwarding
   element (such as a router or a Service Function Forwarder (SFF) or
   Service Function (SF)) to notify downstream devices of the onset of
   congestion without having to drop packets. This can be used as an
   element in active queue management (AQM) [RFC7567] to improve network
   efficiency through better traffic control without packet drops. The
   forwarding element can explicitly mark some packets in an ECN field
   instead of dropping the packet. For example, a two-bit field is
   available for ECN marking in IP headers [RFC3168].

1.3 Tunnel Congestion Feedback Background

   Tunnels are widely deployed in various networks including data center
   networks, enterprise network, and the public Internet. A tunnel
   consists of ingress, egress, and a set of intermediate nodes
   including routers.  Tunnel Congestion Feedback (Section 4) is a
   building block for congestion mitigation methods. It supports
   feedback of congestion information from an egress node to an ingress
   node. This document treats the SFC domain as a tunnel with the
   initial Classifier node being the ingress; however, the Tunnel
   Congestion Feedback facilities specified in this document MAY be used
   in other contexts besides SFC domains.

   Examples of actions that can be taken by an ingress node when it has
   knowledge of downstream congestion include those listed below.
   Details of implementing these traffic control methods, beyond those
   given here, are outside the scope of this document.

   Any action by a tunnel ingress to reduce congestion needs to allow
   sufficient time for the end-to-end congestion control loop to respond
   first, otherwise the system could go unstable. For instance by the
   ingress taking a smoothed average of the level of congestion signaled
   by feedback from the tunnel egress or delaying any action for at
   least the worst case global round trip time (for example 100
   milliseconds).

   (1) Traffic throttling (policing), where the downstream traffic
       flowing out of the ingress node is limited to reduce or eliminate
       congestion.

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 6]
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   (2) Upstream congestion feedback, where the ingress node sends
       messages upstream to or towards the ultimate traffic source, a
       function that can throttle traffic generation/transmission.

   (3) Traffic re-direction, where the ingress node configures the NSH
       of some future traffic so that it avoids congested paths. Great
       care must be taken with this option to avoid (a) significant re-
       ordering of traffic in flows that it is desirable to keep in
       order and (b) oscillation/instability in traffic paths due to
       alternate congestion of previously idle paths and the idling of
       previously congested paths. For example, it is preferable to
       classify traffic into flows of a sufficiently coarse granularity
       that the flows are long lived and then use a stable path per
       flow, sending only newly appearing flows on apparently
       uncongested paths.

   Figure 2 shows an example path from an original sender to a final
   receiver passing through an example chain of service functions
   between the ingress and egress of an SFC domain. The path is also
   likely to pass through other network nodes outside the SFC domain
   (not shown) before entering the SFC domain and after leaving the SFC
   domain.

   The figure shows typical congestion feedback that would be expected
   from the final receiver to the origin sender, which controls the load
   the origin sender applies to all elements on the path. The figure
   also shows the congestion feedback from the egress to the ingress of
   the SFC domain that is described in this document, to control or
   balance load within the SFC domain.

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 7]
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    .:= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = :.
   _||_                 End-to-End Congestion Feedback              ||
   \  /                                                             ||
    \/                                                              ||
    __                Inner Transport Header and Payload            __
   |  | ->- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->- - - - - -- - - - - - ->- |  |
   |  |                                                            |  |
   |  |       .:= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =:.      |  |
   |  |      _||_         Tunnel Congestion Feedback       ||      |  |
   |  |      \  /                                          ||      |  |
   |  |       \/                                           ||      |  |
   |  |       __                    NSH                    __      |  |
   |  |      |  |-------------------------->--------------|  |     |  |
   |  |. . . |  |      ___         ___           ___      |  |. . .|  |
   |  |      |  | OT1 |   |  OT4  |   |  . . .  |   | OTn |  |     |  |
   |  |      |  |-->--|SFF|--->---|SFF|         |SFF|-->--|  |     |  |
   |__|      |__|     |___|       |___|         |___|     |__|     |__|
   origin    SFC       | ^         | ^                    SFC     final
   sender   domain  OT2| |OT3   OT6| |OT7                domain   rcvr
            ingress    v |         v |                   egress
                      +---+       +---+
                      |SF |       |SF |
                      +---+       +---+

            Figure 2. Congestion Feedback across an SFC Domain

   SFC Domain congestion feedback in Figure 2 is shown within the
   context of an end-to-end congestion feedback loop. Also shown is the
   encapsulated layering of NSH headers within a series of outer
   transport headers (OT1, OT2, ... OTn).

1.4 Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   Acronyms:

      AQM - Active Queue Management [RFC7567]

      CE - Congestion Experienced [RFC3168]

      downstream - The direction from ingress to egress

D. Eastlake et al                                               [Page 8]
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      ECN - Explicit Congestion Notification [RFC3168]

      ECT - ECN Capable Transport [RFC3168]

      IPFIX - IP Flow Information Export [RFC7011]

      Not-ECT - Not ECN-Capable Transport [RFC3168]

      NSH - Network Service Header [RFC8300]

      SF - Service Function [RFC7665]

      SFC - Service Function Chaining [RFC7665]

      SFF - Service Function Forwarder [RFC7665] - A type of node that
         forwards based on the NSH.

      TLV - Type Length Value

      upstream - The direction from egress to ingress

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2. The NSH ECN Field

   The NSH header is used to encapsulate and control the subsequent path
   of traffic (see Section 2 of [RFC8300]). The NSH also provides for
   optional metadata inclusion, as shown in Figure 3.

                   +-----------------------------------+
                   |   Outer Transport Header          |
                   +-----------------------------------+
                   |   Network Service Header (NSH)    |
                   | +------------------------------+  |
                   | | Base Header                  |  |
                   | +------------------------------+  |
                   | | Service Path Header          |  |
                   | +------------------------------+  |
                   | | Metadata (Context Header(s)) |  |
                   | +------------------------------+  |
                   +-----------------------------------+
                   | Original Packet / Frame / Payload |
                   +-----------------------------------+

                 Figure 3. Data Encapsulation with the NSH

   Two currently unused bits (indicated by "U") in the NSH Base Header
   (Section 2.2 of [RFC8300]) are allocated for ECN indication as shown
   in Figure 4.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Ver|O|U|    TTL    |   Length  |U|U|U|U|MD Type| Next Protocol |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                      ^ ^
                                      | |
                                   +-------+
                                   |NSH ECN|
                                   | field |
                                   +-------+

                         Figure 4. NSH Base Header

   Note to RFC Editor: The above figure should be adjusted based on the
   bits assigned by IANA (see Section 5) and this note deleted.

   Table 1 shows the meaning of the code points in the NSH ECN field.
   These have the same meaning as the ECN field code points in the IPv4
   or IPv6 header as defined in [RFC3168].

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          Binary  Name     Meaning
          ------  -------  --------------------------------
            00    Not-ECT  Not ECN-Capable Transport
            01    ECT(1)   ECN-Capable Transport
            10    ECT(0)   ECN-Capable Transport
            11    CE       Congestion Experienced

                      Table 1. ECN Field Code Points

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3. ECN Support in the NSH

   This section describes the required behavior to support ECN using the
   NSH. There are two aspects to ECN support:
      1. ECN propagation during encapsulation or decapsulation
      2. ECN marking during congestion at bottlenecks.

   While this section covers all combinations of ECN-aware and ECN-
   unaware, it is expected that in most cases the NSH domain will be
   uniform so that, if this document is applicable, all SFFs will
   support ECN; however, some legacy SFs might not support ECN.

   ECN Propagation:

      The specification of ECN tunneling [RFC6040] explains that an
      ingress must not propagate ECN support into an encapsulating
      header unless the egress supports correct onward propagation of
      the ECN field during decapsulation.  We define Compliant ECN
      Decapsulation here as decapsulation compliant with either
      [RFC6040] or an earlier compatible equivalent ([RFC4301], or the
      full functionality mode of [RFC3168]).

      The procedures in Section 3.2.1 ensure that each ingress of the
      large number of possible transport links within the SFC domain
      does not propagate ECN support into the encapsulating outer
      transport header unless the corresponding egress of that link
      supports Compliant ECN Decapsulation.

      Section 3.3 requires that all the egress nodes of the SFC domain
      support Compliant ECN Decapsulation in conjunction with tunnel
      congestion feedback, otherwise the scheme in this document will
      not work.

   ECN Marking:

      At transit nodes the marking behavior specified in Section 3.2.1
      is recommended and if not implemented at such transit nodes, there
      may be unmanaged congestion.

      Detection of congestion will be most effective if ECN marking is
      supported by all potential bottlenecks inside the domain in which
      NSH is being used to route traffic as well as at the ingress and
      egress.  Nodes that do not support ECN marking, or that support
      AQM but not ECN, will naturally use drop to relieve congestion.
      The gap in the end-to-end packet sequence will be detected as
      congestion by the final receiving endpoint, but not by the NSH
      egress (see Figure 2).

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3.1 At The Ingress

   When the ingress/Classifier encapsulates an incoming IP packet with
   an NSH, it MUST set the NSH ECN field using the "Normal mode"
   specified in [RFC6040] (i.e., copied from the incoming IP header).

   Then, if the resulting NSH ECN field is Not-ECT, the ingress SHOULD
   set it to ECT(0). This indicates that, even though the end-to-end
   transport is not ECN-capable, the egress and ingress of the SFC
   domain are acting as an ECN-capable transport. This approach will
   inherently support all known variants of ECN, including the
   experimental L4S capability [RFC8311] [ecnL4S].

   Packets arriving at the ingress might not use IP. If the protocol of
   arriving packets supports an ECN field similar to IP, the procedures
   for IP packets can be used. If arriving packets do not support an ECN
   field similar to IP, they MUST be treated as if they are Not-ECT IP
   packets.

   Then, as the NSH encapsulated packet is further encapsulated with a
   transport header, if ECN marking is available for that transport (as
   it is for IP [RFC3168] and MPLS [RFC5129]), the ECN field of the
   transport header MUST be set using the "Normal mode" specified in
   [RFC6040] (i.e., copied from the NSH ECN field).

   A summary of these normative steps is given in Table 2.

                    +-----------------+---------------+
                    | Incoming Header | Departing NSH |
                    | (also equal to  |  and Outer    |
                    | departing Inner |    Headers    |
                    |     Header)     |               |
                    +-----------------+---------------+
                    |    Not-ECT      |   ECT(0)      |
                    |     ECT(0)      |   ECT(0)      |
                    |     ECT(1)      |   ECT(1)      |
                    |       CE        |     CE        |
                    +-----------------+---------------+

          Table 2. Setting of ECN fields by an ingress/Classifier

    The requirements in this section apply to all ingress nodes for the
   domain in which NSH is being used to route traffic.

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3.2 At Transit Nodes

   This section described behavior at nodes that forward based on the
   NSH such as SFF and other forwarding nodes such as IP routers. Figure
   5 shows a packet on the wire between forwarding nodes.

                            +-----------------+
                            |   Outer Header  |
                            +-----------------+
                            |       NSH       |
                            +-----------------+
                            |   Inner Header  |
                            +-----------------+
                            |     Payload     |
                            +-----------------+

                        Figure 5. Packet in Transit

3.2.1 At NSH Transit Nodes

   When a packet is received at an NSH based forwarding node such as an
   SFF, say N1, the outer transport encapsulation is removed and its ECN
   marking SHOULD be combined into the NSH ECN marking as specified in
   [RFC6040]. If this is not done, any congestion encountered at non-NSH
   transit nodes between N1 and the next upstream NSH based forwarding
   node will be lost and not transmitted downstream.

   The NSH forwarding node SHOULD use a recognized AQM algorithm
   [RFC7567] to detect congestion. If the NSH ECN field indicates ECT,
   it will probabilistically set the NSH ECN field to the Congestion
   Experienced (CE) value or, in cases of extreme congestion, drop the
   packet.

   When the NSH encapsulated packet is further encapsulated for
   transmission to the next SFF or SF, ECN marking behavior depends on
   whether or not the node that will decapsulate the outer header
   supports Compliant ECN Decapsulation (see Section 3). If it does,
   then the encapsulating node propagates the NSH ECN field to this
   outer encapsulation using the "Normal Mode" of ECN encapsulation
   [RFC6040] (the ECN field is copied). If it does not, then the
   encapsulating node MUST clear ECN in the outer encapsulation to non-
   ECT (the "Compatibility Mode" of [RFC6040]).

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3.2.2 At an SF/Proxy

   If the SF is NSH and ECN-aware, the processing is essentially the
   same at the SF as at an SFF as discussed in Section 3.2.1.

   If the SF is NSH-aware but ECN-unaware, then the SFF transmitting the
   packet to the SF will use Compatibility Mode. Congestion encountered
   in the SFF to SF and SF to SFF paths will be unmanaged.

   If the SF is not NSH-aware, then an NSH proxy will be between the SFF
   and the SF to avoid exposure of the NSH to the SF that does not
   understand NSHs as shown in Figure 6. This is described in Section
   4.6 of [RFC7665]. The SF and proxy together look to the SFF like an
   NSH-aware SF. The behavior at the proxy and SF in this case is as
   below:

      If such a proxy is not ECN-aware then congestion in the entire
      path from SFF to proxy to SF back to proxy to SFF will be
      unmanaged.

                  |
                  v
            +----------+                   +---------+
            |          |     +-------+     |   NSH   |
            |   SFF    +---->|  NSH  +---->|un-aware |
            |(Service  |     | aware |     |   SF    |
            | Function |<----+ proxy |<----+(Service |
            |Forwarder)|     +-------+     |Function)|
            +----------+                   +---------+
                  |
                  v

                     Figure 6. Proxy for NSH Un-aware SFF

      If the proxy is ECN-aware, the proxy uses an AQM to indicate
      congestion within the proxy in the NSH that it returns to the SFF.
      The outer header used for the proxy-to-SF path uses Normal Mode.
      The outer head used for the proxy-to-SFF path uses Normal Mode
      based copying of the NSH ECN field to the outer header. Thus
      congestion in the proxy will be managed. Congestion in the SF will
      be managed only if the SF is ECN-aware and implements an AQM.

3.2.3 At Other Forwarding Nodes

   Other forwarding nodes, that is non-NSH forwarding nodes between NSH
   forwarding nodes, such as IP or label switched routers, might also
   contain potential bottlenecks. If so, they SHOULD implement an AQM
   algorithm to update the ECN marking in the outer transport header as

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   specified in [RFC3168].

3.3 At Exit/Egress

   At the SFC domain egress node, first any actions are taken based on
   Congestion Experienced or other values of ECN marking, such as
   accumulating statistics to send back to the ingress (see Section 4)
   or for other uses. If the packet being carried inside the NSH is IP,
   when the NSH is removed the NSH ECN field MUST be combined with the
   IP ECN field as specified in Table 3 that was extracted from
   [RFC6040].  This requirement applies to all egress nodes for the
   domain in which NSH is being used to route traffic.

         +---------+---------------------------------------------+
         |Arriving |         Arriving Outer Header               |
         |   Inner +---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
         |  Header | Not-ECT | ECT(0)    | ECT(1)    |     CE    |
         +---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
         | Not-ECT | Not-ECT |Not-ECT    |Not-ECT    |  <drop>   |
         |  ECT(0) |  ECT(0) | ECT(0)    | ECT(0)    |     CE    |
         |  ECT(1) |  ECT(1) | ECT(1)    | ECT(1)    |     CE    |
         |    CE   |      CE |     CE    |     CE    |     CE    |
         +---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

                      Table 3. Exit ECN Fields Merger

   All the egress nodes of the SFC domain MUST support Compliant ECN
   Decapsulation as specified in this section. If this is not the case,
   the scheme described in this document will not work, and cannot be
   used.

3.4 Conservation of Packets

   The SFC specification permits an SF to absorb packets and to generate
   new packets as well as simply processing and forwarding the packets
   it receives.  Such actions might appear to be packet loss due to
   congestion or might mask the loss of packets by generating additional
   packets.

   The tunnel congestion feedback approach (Section 4) detects loss by
   counting payload bytes in at the ingress and counting them out at the
   egress. This does not work unless nodes conserve the amount of
   payload bytes. Therefore, it will not be possible to detect loss
   using this technique if they are not conserved.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 16]
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   Nonetheless, if a bottleneck supports ECN marking, it will be
   possible to detect the very high level of CE markings that are
   associated with congestion that is so excessive that it leads to
   loss. However, it will not be possible for the tunnel congestion
   feedback approach to detect any congestion, whether slight or severe,
   if it occurs at a bottleneck that does not support ECN marking.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 17]
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4. Tunnel Congestion Feedback Support

   The collection and storage of congestion information at the egress
   may be useful for later analysis but, unless it can be fed back to a
   point which can take action to reduce congestion, it will not be
   useful in real time. Such congestion feedback to the ingress enables
   it to take actions such as those listed in Section 1.3.

   IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX [RFC7011]) provides a standard for
   communicating traffic flow statistics. As extended by this document,
   IPFIX messages from the egress to the ingress are used to communicate
   the extent of congestion between an ingress and egress based on ECN
   marking in the NSH.

4.1 Congestion Level Measurement

   The congestion level measurement is based on ECN marking in the NSH
   and packet drop, particularly the fraction of packets that are CE-
   marked packet and fraction that are dropped.  If the congestion level
   is not high enough, the packets are marked as CE instead of being
   dropped, and then it is easy to calculate congestion level according
   to the ratio of CE-marked packets. If the congestion level is so high
   that ECT packets will be dropped, then the packet loss ratio could be
   calculated by comparing total packets entering ingress and total
   packets arriving at egress over the same span of packets. If packet
   loss is detected, it could be assumed that severe congestion has
   occurred in the tunnel.

   The egress calculates the CE-marked packet ratio by counting packets
   with different ECN markings. The CE-marked packet ratio will be used
   as an indication of tunnel load level. It is assumed that nodes
   between the ingress and egress will not drop packets biased towards
   certain ECN codepoints, so calculating of CE-marked packet ratio is
   not affect by packet drop.

   The calculation of volumes of packet drop is by comparing the traffic
   volumes between ingress and egress.

   Faked ECN-Capable Transport (ECT) is used at the ingress to defer
   packet loss to the egress. The basic idea of faked ECT is that, when
   encapsulating packets, the ingress first marks the tunnel outer
   header (NSH for an SFC domain) according to [RFC6040], and then
   remarks the outer header of Not-ECT packets as ECT. (ECT(0) and
   ECT(1) are treated as the same.) Thus, as transmitted by the ingress
   node, there will be one of three combinations of outer header ECN
   field and inner header ECN field: CE|CE, ECT|N-ECT, and ECT|ECT (in
   the format of outer-ECN|inner-ECN); when decapsulating packets at the
   egress, [RFC6040] defined decapsulation behavior is used, and

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 18]
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   according to [RFC6040], the packets marked as CE|N-ECT will be
   dropped. Faked-ECT is used to shift some drops to the egress in order
   to allow the egress to calculate the CE-marked packet ratio more
   precisely.

   The ingress encapsulates packets and marks their outer header
   according to faked ECT as described above. The ingress cumulatively
   counts packet bytes for three types of ECN combination (CE|CE, ECT|N-
   ECT, and ECT|ECT) and then the ingress regularly sends cumulative
   bytes counts message of each type of ECN combination to the egress.

   When each message arrives at the egress, (1) egress calculates the
   ratio of CE-marked packet; (2) the egress cumulatively counts packet
   bytes coming from the ingress and adds its own bytes counts of each
   type of ECN combination (CE|CE, ECT|N-ECT, CE|N-ECT, CE|ECT, and
   ECT|ECT) to the message for ingress to calculate packet loss. The
   egress feeds back CE-marked packet ratio and bytes counts information
   to the ingress for evaluating congestion level in the tunnel.

   The counting of bytes can be at the granularity of all traffic from
   the ingress to the egress to learn about the overall congestion
   status of the path between the ingress and the egress. The counting
   can also be at the granularity of individual customer's traffic or a
   specific set of flows to learn about their congestion contribution.

   For example, the tunnelEcnCEMarkedRatio field (specified below)
   indicates the fraction of traffic that has been marked in the ECN
   field of the NSH as Congestion Experienced (CE).

4.3 Congestion Information Delivery

   As described above, the tunnel ingress needs to send a messages
   containing cumulative bytes counts of packets of each type of ECN
   combination to the tunnel egress, and the tunnel egress also needs to
   feed back messages with cumulative bytes counts of packets of each
   type of ECN combination and CE-marked packet ratio to the ingress.
   This section specifies how the messages should be conveyed.

   IPFIX recommends, but does not require, use of SCTP [RFC4960] in
   partial reliability mode [RFC3758] for the transport of its messages.
   This mode allows loss of some packets, which is tolerable because
   IPFIX communicates cumulative statistics. IPFIX over SCTP over IP
   SHOULD be used directly where there is IP connectivity between the
   ingress and egress; however, there might be different transport
   protocols or address spaces used in different regions of an SFC
   domain that make such direct IP connectivity problematic. The NSH
   provides the general method of routing traffic within an SFC domain
   so the encapsulation of the required IPFIX traffic in NSH MUST be

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 19]
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   implemented and, when IP connectivity is not available, IPFIX over
   NSH SHOULD be used along with configuration of appropriate SFC paths
   for the IPFIX over NSH traffic.

   Typically IPFIX messages could travel along the same path as network
   data traffic. In any case, an IPFIX message packet may get lost in
   case of network congestion. Even though the missing information could
   be recovered because of the use of cumulative counts, the message
   SHOULD be transmitted at a higher priority than users' traffic flows.

   The ingress node can do congestion management at different
   granularity which means both the overall aggregated inner tunnel
   congestion level and congestion level contributed by certain traffic
   flows could be measured for different congestion management purpose.
   For example, if the ingress only wants to limit congestion volume
   caused by certain traffic flows, such as UDP-based traffic, then
   congestion volume for that traffic will be fed back; or if the
   ingress is doing overall congestion management, the aggregated
   congestion volume will be fed back.

   When sending IPFIX messages from ingress to egress, the ingress acts
   as IPFIX exporter and egress acts as IPFIX collector; When feedback
   congestion level information from egress to ingress, then the egress
   acts as IPFIX exporter and ingress acts as IPFIX collector.

   The combination of congestion level measurement and congestion
   information delivery procedures should be as following:

   o  The ingress node determines the IPFIX template record to be used.
      The template record can be pre-configured or determined at
      runtime, the content of template record will be determined
      according to the granularity of congestion management; if the
      ingress wants to limit congestion volume contributed by specific
      traffic flow then the elements such as source IP address,
      destination IP address, flow id and CE-marked packet volume of the
      flow, etc., will be included in the template record.

   o  Metering on the ingress measures traffic volume according to
      template record chosen and then the measurement records are sent
      to the egress.

   o  Metering on the egress measures congestion level information
      according to template record which should be the same as the
      template record sent by the ingress.

   o  The egress sends measurement records together with the measurement
      records of ingress back to the ingress.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 20]
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4.3 IPFIX Extensions

   This section specifies new IPFIX Information Elements according to
   [RFC7013].

4.3.1 nshServicePathID

   In order to identify SFC flows, so that congestion can be measured
   and reported at that granularity, it is necessary for IPFIX to be
   able to classify traffic based on the Service Path Identifier field
   of the NSH [RFC8300]. Thus an NSH Service Path Identifier
   (nshServicePathID) IPFIX Information Element [RFC7012] is specified.

      Name: nshServicePathID

      Description: Network Service Header [RFC8300] Service Path
         Identifier.  This is a 24-bit value which is left justified in
         the Information Element. The low order byte MUST be sent as
         zero and ignored on receipt.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned32

      Data Type Semantics: identifier

      ElementId: tbd0

      Status: current

4.3.2 tunnelEcnCeCeByteTotalCount

      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|CE ECN marking combination at the Observation Point since
         the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter

      ElementId: TBD1

      Statues: current

      Units: bytes

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 21]
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4.3.3 tunnelEcnEctNectBytetTotalCount

      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         ECT|N-ECT ECN marking combination (ECT(0) and ECT(1) are
         treated as the same) at the Observation Point since the
         Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter

      ElementId: TBD2

      Statues: current

      Units: bytes

4.3.4 tunnelEcnCeNectByteTotalCount

      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|N-ECT ECN marking combination at the Observation Point since
         the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter

      ElementId: TBD3

      Statues: current

      Units: bytes

4.3.5 tunnelEcnCeEctByteTotalCount

      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|ECT ECN marking combination (ECT(0) and ECT(1) are treated
         as the same) at the Observation Point since the Metering
         Process (re-)initialization for this Observation Point.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 22]
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      ElementId: TBD4

      Statues: current

      Units: bytes

4.3.6 tunnelEcnEctEctByteTotalCount

      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         ECT|ECT ECN marking combination (ECT(0) and ECT(1) are treated
         as the same) at the Observation Point since the Metering
         Process (re-)initialization for this Observation Point.

      Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter

      ElementId: TBD5

      Statues: current

      Units: bytes

4.3.7 tunnelEcnCEMarkedRatio

      Description: The ratio of CE-marked Packet at the Observation
         Point.

      Abstract Data Type: float32

      ElementId: TBD6

      Statues: current

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 23]
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5. Example of Use

   This subsection provides an example of how the solution described in
   this document could work.

   First of all, IPFIX template records are exchanged between ingress
   and egress to negotiate the format of data records. The example here
   is to measure the congestion level for the overall tunnel caused by
   all the traffic. After the negotiation is finished, the ingress sends
   in-band messages to egress containing the number of each kind of ECN-
   marked packets (i.e.. CE|CE, ECT|N-ECT and ECT|ECT) received until it
   sent the message.

   After the egress receives the message, the egress calculates the CE-
   marked packet ratio and counts the number of different kinds of ECN-
   marking packets received until it received the message. Then the
   egress sends a feedback message containing the counts together with
   the information in the ingress's message back to the ingress.

   Figures 7 to 10 below show the example procedure between ingress and
   egress.

        +---------------------------------+----------------------+
        |Set ID=2                              Length=40         |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |Template ID=256                       Field Count=8     |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnCeCeByteTotalCount           Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnEctNectByteTotalCount        Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnEctEctByteTotalCount         Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnCeNectByteTotalCount         Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnCeEctByteTotalCount          Field Length=8    |
        +---------------------------------|----------------------+
        |tunnelEcnCEMarkedRatio                Field Length=4    |
        +---------------------------------+----------------------+

           Figure 7. Template Record Sent From Egress to Ingress

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 24]
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        +---------------------------------+----------------------+
        |Set ID=2                              Length=28         |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |Template ID=257                       Field Count=3     |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnCeCeByteTotalCount           Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnEctNectByteTotalCount        Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------|----------------------|
        |tunnelEcnEctEctByteTotalCount         Field Length=8    |
        |---------------------------------+----------------------|

           Figure 8. Template Record Sent From Ingress to Egress

         +-------+         +-+  +-+ +-+ +-+  +-+ +-+ +-+  +-------+
         |       |         |M|  |P| |P| |P|  |M| |P| |P|  |       |
         |       |         +-+  +-+ +-+ +-+  +-+ +-+ +-+  |       |
         |       |<---------------------------------------|       |
         |       |                                        |       |
         |       |                                        |       |
         |egress |         +-+             +-+            |ingress|
         |       |         |M|             |M|            |       |
         |       |         +-+             +-+            |       |
         |       |--------------------------------------->|       |
         |       |                                        |       |
         |       |                                        |       |
         +-------+                                        +-------+

                    +-+
                    |M| : Message Packet
                    +-+

                    +-+
                    |P| : User Packet
                    +-+

             Figure 9. Traffic flow Between Ingress and Egress

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 25]
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                           Set ID=257, Length=28
            +------+             A1                    +------+
            |      |             B1                    |      |
            |      |             C1                    |      |
            |      |  <-----------------------------   |      |
            |      |                                   |      |
            |      |                                   |      |
            |      |        SetID=256, Length=72       |      |
            |      |             A1                    |      |
            |      |             B1                    |      |
            |egress|             C1                    ingress|
            |      |             A2                    |      |
            |      |             B2                    |      |
            |      |             C2                    |      |
            |      |             D                     |      |
            |      |             E                     |      |
            |      |             R                     |      |
            |      |    ---------------------------->  |      |
            |      |                                   |      |
            +------+                                   +------+

              Figure 10. Messages Between Ingress and Egress

   The following provides an example of how the tunnel congestion level
   could be calculated:

      The congestion Level could be divided into two categories: (1)
      slight congestion (no packets dropped); (2) serious congestion
      (packets are being dropped).

      For slight congestion, the congestion level is indicated as the
      ratio of CE-marked packet:

         ce_marked = R;

      For serious congestion, the congestion level is indicated as the
      number of volume loss:

         total_ingress = (A1 + B1 + C1)

         total_egress = (A2 + B2 + C2 + D + E)

         volume_loss = (total_ingress - total_egress)

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 26]
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6. IANA Considerations

   The following subsections provide IANA assignment considerations.

6.1 SFC NSH Header ECN Bits

   IANA is requested to assign two contiguous bits in the NSH Base
   Header Bits registry for ECN (bits 16 and 17 suggested) and note this
   assignment as follows:

        Bit         Description    Reference
      ----------    -----------   -----------------
      tbd(16-17)     NSH ECN       [this document]

6.2 IPFIX Information Element IDs

   IANA is requested to assign IPFIX Information Element IDs as follows:

      ElementID: tbd0
      Name: nshServicePathID
      Data Type: unsigned32
      Data Type Semantics: identifier
      Status: current
      Description: The Network Service Header [RFC8300] Service Path
         Identifier.

      ElementID: TBD1
      Name: tunnelEcnCeCePacketTotalCount
      Data Type: unsigned64
      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
      Status: current
      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|CE ECN marking combination at the Observation Point since
         the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.
      Units: octets

      ElementID: TBD2
      Name: tunnelEcnEctNectPacketTotalCount
      Data Type: unsigned64
      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
      Status: current
      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         ECT|N-ECT ECN marking combination at the Observation Point
         since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this
         Observation Point.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 27]
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      Units: octets

      ElementID: TBD3
      Name: tunnelEcnCeNectPacketTotalCount
      Data Type: unsigned64
      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
      Status: current
      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|N-ECT ECN marking combination at the Observation Point since
         the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.
      Units: octets

      ElementID: TBD4
      Name: tunnelEcnCeEctPacketTotalCount
      Data Type: unsigned64
      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
      Status: current
      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|ECT ECN marking combination at the Observation Point since
         the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation
         Point.
      Units: octets

      ElementID: TBD5
      Name: tunnelEcnEctEctPacketTotalCount
      Data Type: unsigned64
      Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
      Status: current
      Description: The total number of bytes of incoming packets with
         CE|ECT(0) ECN marking combination at the Observation Point
         since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this
         Observation Point.
      Units: octets

      ElementID: TBD6
      Name: tunnelEcnCEMarkedRatio
      Data Type: float32
      Status: current
      Description: The ratio of CE-marked Packet at the Observation
         Point.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 28]
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7. Security Considerations

   For general NSH security considerations, see [RFC8300].

   For security considerations concerning tampering with ECN signaling,
   see [RFC3168]. For security considerations concerning ECN and
   encapsulation, see [RFC6040].

   For general IPFIX security considerations, see [RFC7011]. If deployed
   in an untrusted environment, the signaling traffic between ingress
   and egress can be protected utilizing the security mechanisms
   provided by IPFIX (see Section 11 in [RFC7011]).

   The tunnel endpoints (the ingress and egress for an SFC domain) are
   assumed to be in the same administrative domain, so they will trust
   each other.

   The solution in this document does not introduce any greater
   potential to invade privacy than would have been available without
   the solution.

8. Acknowledgements

   Most of the material on Tunnel Congestion Feedback was originally in
   draft-ietf-twvwg-tunnel-congestion-feedback. After discussion with
   the authors of that draft, the authors of this draft, and the Chairs
   of the TSVWG and SFC Working Groups, the Tunnel Congestion Feedback
   draft was merged into this draft.

   The authors wish to thank the following for their comments,
   suggestions, and reviews:

      David Black, Sami Boutros, Anthony Chan, Lingli Deng, Liang Geng,
      Joel Halpern, Jake Holland, John Kaippallimalil, Tal Mizrahi,
      Vincent Roca, Lei Zhu

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 29]
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Normative References

   [RFC2119] - Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
         Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119,
         March 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3168] - Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
         of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP", RFC 3168, DOI
         10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001, <http://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC3758] - Stewart, R., Ramalho, M., Xie, Q., Tuexen, M., and P.
         Conrad, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Partial
         Reliability Extension", RFC 3758, DOI 10.17487/RFC3758, May
         2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3758>.

   [RFC5129] - Davie, B., Briscoe, B., and J. Tay, "Explicit Congestion
         Marking in MPLS", RFC 5129, DOI 10.17487/RFC5129, January 2008,
         <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5129>.

   [RFC6040] - Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
         Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November 2010,
         <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.

   [RFC7011] - Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
         "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
         Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77, RFC
         7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013, <https://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7011>.

   [RFC7013] - Trammell, B. and B. Claise, "Guidelines for Authors and
         Reviewers of IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Information
         Elements", BCP 184, RFC 7013, DOI 10.17487/RFC7013, September
         2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7013>.

   [RFC7567] - Baker, F., Ed., and G. Fairhurst, Ed., "IETF
         Recommendations Regarding Active Queue Management", BCP 197,
         RFC 7567, DOI 10.17487/RFC7567, July 2015, <http://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7567>.

   [RFC8174] - Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
         2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May
         2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>

   [RFC8300] - Quinn, P., Ed., Elzur, U., Ed., and C. Pignataro, Ed.,
         "Network Service Header (NSH)", RFC 8300, DOI 10.17487/RFC8300,
         January 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8300>.

D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 30]
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Informative References

   [RFC4301] - Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
         Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301, December
         2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.

   [RFC4960] - Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
         RFC 4960, DOI 10.17487/RFC4960, September 2007,
         <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4960>.

   [RFC7012] - Claise, B., Ed., and B. Trammell, Ed., "Information Model
         for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 7012, DOI
         10.17487/RFC7012, September 2013, <https://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7012>.

   [RFC7665] - Halpern, J., Ed., and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service
         Function Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665, DOI
         10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015, <https://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc7665>.

   [RFC8311] - Black, D., "Relaxing Restrictions on Explicit Congestion
         Notification (ECN) Experimentation", RFC 8311, DOI
         10.17487/RFC8311, January 2018, <https://www.rfc-
         editor.org/info/rfc8311>.

   [ecnL4S] - De Schepper, K., and B. Briscoe, "Identifying Modified
         Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) Semantics for Ultra-Low
         Queuing Delay (L4S)", draft-ietf-tsvwg-ecn-l4s-id, work in
         progress.

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Authors' Addresses

      Donald E. Eastlake, 3rd
      Futurewei Technologies
      2386 Panoramic Circle
      Apopka, FL 32703 USA

      Tel: +1-508-333-2270
      Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com

      Bob Briscoe
      Independent
      UK

      Email: ietf@bobbriscoe.net
      URI:   http://bobbriscoe.net/

      Yizhou Li
      Huawei Technologies
      101 Software Avenue,
      Nanjing 210012, P. R China

      Phone: +86-25-56624584
      EMail: liyizhou@huawei.com

      Andrew G. Malis
      Malis Consulting

      Email: agmalis@gmail.com

      Xinpeng Wei
      Huawei Technologies
      Beiqing Rd. Z-park No.156, Haidian District,
      Beijing,  100095, P. R. China

      EMail: weixinpeng@huawei.com

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D. Eastlake et al                                              [Page 33]