Virtual Machine Mobility Solutions for L2 and L3 Overlay Networks
draft-ietf-nvo3-vmm-06

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (nvo3 WG)
Last updated 2019-11-18
Replaces draft-sarikaya-nvo3-vmm-dmm-pmip
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Network Working Group                                      L. Dunbar
Internet Draft                                             Futurewei
Intended status: Informational                           B. Sarikaya
Expires: May 18, 2020                             Denpel Informatique
                                                       B.Khasnabish
                                                        Independent
                                                          T. Herbert
                                                               Intel
                                                          S. Dikshit
                                                           Aruba-HPE
                                                   November 18, 2019

     Virtual Machine Mobility Solutions for L2 and L3 Overlay Networks
                          draft-ietf-nvo3-vmm-06

Abstract

   This document discusses Virtual Machine (VM) mobility solutions that
   are commonly used in overlay-based Data Center (DC) networks. The
   objective is to describe the solutions and their impact on moving
   VMs (and applications) from one rack to another connected by the
   Overlay networks.

   For layer 2 networks, it is based on using an NVA (Network
   Virtualization Authority) - NVE (Network Virtualization Edge)
   protocol to update the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table or
   neighbor cache entries after a VM (virtual machine) moves from an
   Old NVE to a New NVE.  For Layer 3, it is based on migration of
   address and connection  after the move.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.This Internet-Draft is submitted in
   full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. This
   document may not be modified, and derivative works of it may not be
   created, except to publish it as an RFC and to translate it into
   languages other than English.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that

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   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 10, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this
   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Conventions used in this document..............................4
   3. Requirements...................................................5
   4. Overview of the VM Mobility Solutions..........................5
      4.1. VM Migration in Layer-2 Network...........................5
      4.2. Task Migration in Layer-3 Network.........................7
         4.2.1. Address and Connection Migration in Task Migration...8
   5. Handling Packets in Flight.....................................9

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   6. Moving Local State of VM......................................10
   7. Handling of Hot, Warm and Cold VM Mobility....................10
   8. VM Operation..................................................11
   9. Security Considerations.......................................11
   10. IANA Considerations..........................................12
   11. Acknowledgments..............................................12
   12. Change Log...................................................12
   13. References...................................................12
      13.1. Normative References....................................13
      13.2. Informative References..................................14

1. Introduction
     This document describes the overlay-based DC networking solutions
     in support of multi-tenancy and VM   mobility. Many large DCs,
     especially Cloud DCs, host tasks (or workloads) for multiple
     tenants. A tenant can be a department of one organization or an
     organization. There is communication among tasks belonging to one
     tenant and communication among tasks belonging to different
     tenants or with external entities.
     Server Virtualization, which is being used in almost all of
     today's DCs, enables many VMs to run on a single physical computer
     or server sharing the processor/memory/storage.  Network
     connectivity among VMs is provided by the network virtualization
     edge (NVE) [RFC8014].  It is highly desirable [RFC7364] to allow
     VMs to   move dynamically (live, hot, or cold move) from one
     server to another for dynamic load balancing or optimized workload
     distribution.
     There are many challenges and requirements related to VM mobility
     in large data centers, including dynamically attaching/detaching
     VMs to/from Virtual Network Edges (VNEs).  In addition, retaining
     the IP addresses after a move is a key requirement [RFC7364].
     Such a requirement is needed in order to maintain existing
     transport connections.
     In traditional Layer-3 based networks, retaining IP addresses
     after a move is generally not recommended because the frequent
     move will cause fragmented IP addresses, which complicates IP
     address management.
     In view of many VM mobility schemes that exist today, there is a
     need to document comprehensive VM mobility solutions that cover
     both IPv4 and IPv6. Large DC networks can be organized as one
     large (a) Layer-2 network geographically distributed across
     buildings/cities or (b) Layer-3 networks with large number of host
     routes that cannot be aggregated as a result of frequent moves
     from one location to another without changing the IP addresses.

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     The connectivity between Layer 2 boundaries can be achieved by the
     NVE functioning as Layer-3 gateway, performing routing across
     bridging domain such as in Warehouse Scale Computers (WSC).

2. Conventions used in this document

      The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
      NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
      "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
      RFC 2119 [RFC2119] and [RFC8014].

      This document uses the terminology defined in [RFC7364].  In
      addition, we make the following definitions:

      VM:    Virtual Machine

      Tasks:  Task is a program instantiated or running on a virtual
               machine or container.  Tasks in virtual machines or
               containers can be migrated from one server to another.
               We use task, workload and virtual machine
               interchangeably in this document.

      Hot VM Mobility: A given VM could be moved from one server to
               another in running state.

     Warm VM Mobility:  In case of warm VM mobility, the VM states are
               mirrored to the secondary server (or domain) at a
               predefined (configurable) regular intervals.  This
               reduces the overheads and complexity, but this may also
               lead to a situation when both servers may not contain
               the exact same data (state information)

      Cold VM Mobility:  A given VM could be moved from one server to
               another in stopped or suspended state.

      Old NVE:  This refers to the old NVE where packets were forwarded
               to before migration.

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      New NVE: This refers to the new NVE after migration.

      Packets in flight: This refers to the packets received by the Old
               NVE sent by the correspondents that have old ARP or
               neighbor cache entry before VM or task migration.

      Users of VMs in diskless systems or the systems that are not
               using configuration files are called end user clients.

      Cloud DC: Third party DCs that host applications, tasks or
               workloads and owned by different organizations or
               tenants.

3. Requirements

   This section states VM mobility requirements on DC  networks.

   DC networks should support both IPv4 and IPv6 VM mobility.

   VM mobility should not require changing their IP addresses after the
   move.

   There exist "Hot Migration" where transport service continuity is
   maintained, and "Cold Migration" where the transport service needs
   to be restarted, i.e., execution of the tasks   is stopped on the
   "Old" NVE, moved to the "New" NVE and the task is restarted.

   VM mobility solutions/procedures should minimize triangular routing
   except for handling packets in flight.

   VM mobility solutions/procedures should not need to use tunneling
   except for handling packets in flight.

4. Overview of the VM Mobility Solutions

     Layer-2 and Layer-3 mobility solutions are described respectively
     in the following sections.

4.1. VM Migration in Layer-2 Network

     Ability to move VMs dynamically, from one server to another, makes
     it possible for dynamic load balancing or workload distribution.

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     Therefore, this scheme is highly desirable for utilization in
     large scale multi-tenant DCs.

     In a Layer-2 based VM migration approach, a VM that is moving to
     another server does not change its IP address. But since this VM
     is now under a new NVE, previously communicating NVEs will
     continue sending their packets to the Old NVE.  To solve this
     problem, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache in IPv4 [RFC0826]
     or neighbor cache in IPv6 [RFC4861] in the NVEs need to be updated
     promptly. All NVEs need to change their caches associating the VM
     Layer-2 or Medium Access Control (MAC) address with the new NVE's
     IP address as soon as the VM moves. Such a change enables all NVEs
     to encapsulate the outgoing MAC frames with the current target NVE
     IP address. It may take some time to refresh the ARP/ND cache when
     a VM has moved to a New NVE.  During this period, a tunnel is
     needed for that Old NVE to forward packets destined to the VM
     under the New NVE.

     In case of IPv4, immediately after the move, the VM should send a
     gratuitous ARP request message containing its IPv4 and Layer-2 MAC
     address to its new NVE.  This message's destination address is the
     broadcast address.  Upon receiving this message, both old and new
     NVEs should update the VM's ARP entry in the central directory at
     the NVA, to update its mappings to record the IPv4 address and MAC
     address of the moving VM along with the new NVE IPv4 address.  An
     NVE-to-NVA protocol is used for this purpose [RFC8014].

     Reverse ARP (RARP) which enables the host to discover its IPv4
     address when it boots from a local server [RFC0903], is not used
     by VMs because the VM already knows its IPv4 address. Next, we
     describe a case where RARP is used.

     There are some vendor deployments (e.g., diskless systems or
     systems without configuration files) where the VM's user, i.e.,
     end-user client asks for the same MAC address upon migration.
     This can be achieved by the clients sending RARP request message
     which carries the MAC address looking for an IP address
     allocation.  The server, in this case the new NVE, needs to
     communicate with NVA, just like in the gratuitous ARP case to
     ensure that the same IPv4 address is assigned to the VM.  NVA uses
     the MAC address as the key in the search of ARP cache to find the
     IP address and informs this to the new NVE which in turn sends
     RARP reply message.  This completes IP address assignment to the
     migrating VM.

     Other NVEs communicating with this VM could have the old ARP
     entry. If any VMs in those NVEs need to communicate with the VM

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     attached to the new NVE, old ARP entries might be used.  Thus, the
     packets are delivered to the old NVE.  The old NVE MUST tunnel
     these in-flight packets to the new NVE.

     When an ARP entry for those VMs times out, their corresponding
     NVEs should access the NVA for an update.

     IPv6 operation is slightly different:

     In IPv6, after the move, the VM immediately sends an unsolicited
     neighbor advertisement message containing its IPv6 address and
     Layer-2 MAC address to its new NVE. This message is sent to the
     IPv6 Solicited Node Multicast Address corresponding to the target
     address which is the VM's IPv6 address. The NVE receiving this
     message should send request to update VM's neighbor cache entry in
     the central directory of the NVA.  The NVA's neighbor cache entry
     should include IPv6 address of the VM, MAC address of the VM and
     the NVE IPv6 address.  An NVE-to-NVA protocol is used for this
     purpose [RFC8014].

     Other NVEs communicating with this VM might still use the old
     neighbor cache entry.  If any VM in those NVEs need to communicate
     with the VM attached to the new NVE, it could use the old neighbor
     cache entry. Thus, the packets are delivered to the old NVE.  The
     old NVE MUST tunnel these in-flight packets to the new NVE.

     When a neighbor cache entry in those VMs times out, their
     corresponding NVEs should access the NVA for an update.

4.2. Task Migration in Layer-3 Network

     Layer-2 based DC networks become quickly prohibitive because
     ARP/neighbor caches don't scale.  Scaling can be accomplished
     seamlessly in Layer-3 data center networks by just giving each
     virtual network an IP subnet and a default route that points to
     its NVE.  This means no explosion of ARP/ neighbor cache in VMs
     and NVEs (just one ARP/ neighbor cache entry for the default
     route) and there is no need to have Ethernet header in
     encapsulation [RFC7348] which saves at least 16 bytes.

     Even though the term VM and Task are used interchangeably in this
     document, the term Task is used in the context of Layer-3
     migration mainly to have slight emphasis on the task of moving an
     entity   that is instantiated on a VM or a container.

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     Traditional Layer-3 based DC networks require IP address of the
     task to change after moving because the pre-fixes of the IP
     address usually reflect the locations. It is necessary to have an
     IP based VM migration solution that can allow IP addresses staying
     the same after the VMs move to different locations. The Identifier
     Locator Addressing or ILA [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila] is one of such
     solutions.

     Because broadcasting is not available in Layer-3 based networks,
     multicast of neighbor solicitations in IPv6 would need to be
     emulated.

     Cold task migration, which is a common practice in many data
     centers, involves the following steps:

     - Stop running the task.
     - Package the runtime state of the job.
     - Send the runtime state of the task to the new NVE where the
        task is to run.
     - Instantiate the task's state on the new machine.
     - Start the tasks   continuing it from the point at which it was
        stopped.

     Address migration and connection migration in moving tasks or VMs
     are addressed next.

 4.2.1. Address and Connection Migration in Task Migration

     Address migration is achieved as follows:

     - Configure IPv4/v6 address on the target Task.
     - Suspend use of the address on the old Task.  This includes
        handling established connections.  A state may be established
        to drop packets or send ICMPv4 or ICMPv6 destination
        unreachable message when packets to the migrated address are
        received.
     - Push the new mapping to VM.  Communicating VMs will learn of
        the new mapping via a control plane either by participating in
        a protocol for mapping propagation or by getting the new
        mapping from a central database such as Domain Name System
        (DNS).

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     Connection migration involves reestablishing existing TCP
     connections of the task in the new place.

     The simplest course of action is to drop all TCP connections to
     the VM across a migration.  If the migrations are relatively rare
     events in a data center, impact is relatively small when TCP
     connections are automatically closed in the network stack during a
     migration event.  If the applications running are known to handle
     this gracefully (i.e. reopen dropped connections) then this
     approach may be viable.

     More involved approach to connection migration entails pausing the
     connection, packaging connection state and sending to target,
     instantiating connection state in the peer stack, and restarting
     the connection.  From the time the connection is paused to the
     time it is running again in the new stack, packets received for
     the connection could be silently dropped.  For some period of
     time, the old stack will need to keep a record of the migrated
     connection.  If it receives a packet, it can either silently drop
     the packet or forward it to the new location, as described in
     Section 5.

5. Handling Packets in Flight

     The Old NVE may receive packets from the VM's ongoing
     communications. These packets should not be lost; they should be
     sent to the New NVE to be delivered to the VM.  The steps involved
     in handling packets in flight are as follows:

     Preparation Step:  It takes some time, possibly a few seconds for
     a VM to move from its Old NVE to a New NVE. During this period, a
     tunnel needs to be established so that the Old NVE can forward
     packets to the New NVE. Old NVE gets New NVE address from NVA in
     the request to move the VM. The Old NVE can store the New NVE
     address for the VM with a timer. When the timer expired, the entry
     for the New NVE for the VM can be deleted.

     Tunnel Establishment - IPv6:  Inflight packets are tunneled to the
     New NVE using the encapsulation protocol such as VXLAN in IPv6.

     Tunnel Establishment - IPv4:  Inflight packets are tunneled to the
     New NVE using the encapsulation protocol such as VXLAN in IPv4.

     Tunneling Packets - IPv6:  IPv6 packets received for the migrating
     VM are encapsulated in an IPv6 header at the Old NVE.  New NVE
     decapsulates the packet and sends IPv6 packet to the migrating VM.

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     Tunneling Packets - IPv4:  IPv4 packets received for the migrating
     VM are encapsulated in an IPv4 header at the Old NVE. New NVE
     decapsulates the packet and sends IPv4 packet to the migrating VM.

     Stop Tunneling Packets:  When the Timer for storing the New NVE
     address for the VM expires. The Timer should be long enough for
     all other NVEs that need to communicate with the VM to get their
     NVE-VM cache entries updated.

6. Moving Local State of VM
     In addition to the VM mobility related signaling (VM Mobility
     Registration Request/Reply), the VM state needs to be transferred
     to the New NVE.  The state includes its memory and file system if
     the VM cannot access the memory and the file system after moving
     to the New NVE.  Old NVE opens a TCP connection with New NVE over
     which VM's memory state is transferred.

     File system or local storage is more complicated to transfer.  The
     transfer should ensure consistency, i.e. the VM at the New NVE
     should find the same file system it had at the Old NVE.  Pre-
     copying is a commonly used technique for transferring the file
     system.  First the whole disk image is transferred while VM
     continues to run.  After the VM is moved, any changes in the file
     system are packaged together and sent to the New NVE Hypervisor
     which reflects these changes to the file system locally at the
     destination.

7. Handling of Hot, Warm and Cold VM Mobility
     Both Cold and Warm VM mobility (migration), refers to the VM being
     completely shut down at the old NVE before restarted at the new
     NVE. Therefore, all transport services to the VM need to restart.

     Upon starting at the new NVE, the VM should send an ARP or
     Neighbor Discovery message. Cold VM mobility also allows the Old
     NVE and all communicating NVEs to time out ARP/neighbor cache
     entries of the VM.  It is necessary for the NVA to push the
     updated ARP/neighbor cache entry to NVEs or for NVEs to pull the
     updated ARP/neighbor cache entry from NVA.

     The Cold VM mobility can be facilitated by cold standby entity
     receiving scheduled backup information. The cold standby entity
     can be a VM or  other form factors which is beyond the scope of
     this document. The cold mobility option can be used for non-
     critical applications and services that can tolerate interrupted
     TCP connections.

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     The Warm VM mobility refers the backup entities receive backup
     information at more frequent intervals.  The duration of the
     interval determines the warmth of the option.  The larger the
     duration, the less warm (and hence cold) the Warm VM mobility
     option becomes.

     There is also a Hot Standby option in addition to the Hot
     Mobility, where there are VMs in both primary and secondary NVEs.
     They have identical information and can provide services
     simultaneously as in load-share mode of operation.  If the VM in
     the primary NVE fails, there is no need to actively move the VM to
     the secondary NVE because the VM in the secondary NVE already
     contains identical information.  The Hot Standby option is the
     costliest mechanism, and hence this option is utilized only for
     mission-critical applications and services.  In Hot Standby
     option, regarding TCP connections, one option is to start with and
     maintain TCP connections to two different VMs at the same time.
     The least loaded VM responds first and starts providing service
     while the sender (origin) still continues to receive Ack from the
     heavily loaded (secondary) VM and chooses not to use the service
     of the secondary responding VM.  If the situation (loading
     condition of the primary responding VM) changes the secondary VM
     may start providing service to the sender (origin).

8. VM Operation
     Once a VM moves to a new NVE, the VM's IP address does not change
     and the VM should be able to continue to receive packets to its
     address(es).

     The VM needs to send a gratuitous Address Resolution message or
     unsolicited Neighbor Advertisement message upstream after each
     move.

     The VM lifecycle management is a complicated task, which is beyond
     the scope of this document. Not only it involves monitoring server
     utilization, balancing the distribution of workload, etc., but
     also needs seamless management VM migration from one server to
     another.

9. Security Considerations
     Security threats for the data and control plane for overlay
     networks are discussed in [RFC8014].  There are several issues in
     a multi-tenant environment that create problems.  In Layer-2 based
     overlay DC networks, lack of security in VXLAN, and corruption of
     VNI can lead to delivery of information to the wrong tenant.

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     Also, ARP in IPv4 and ND in IPv6 are not secure, especially if we
     accept the gratuitous versions.  When these are done over a UDP
     encapsulation, as in VXLAN, the problem gets worse since it is
     trivial for a non-trusted entity to spoof UDP packets.

     In Layer-3 based overlay data center networks, the problem of
     address spoofing may arise.  An NVE may have untrusted tasks
     attached to it. This usually happens in situations when   the VMs
     (tasks) running third party applications.  This requires the usage
     of stronger security mechanisms.

10. IANA Considerations

       This document makes no request to IANA.

11. Acknowledgments

   The authors are grateful to Bob Briscoe, David Black, Dave R.
   Worley, Qiang Zu, and Andrew Malis for helpful comments.

12. Change Log

  . submitted version -00 as a working group draft after adoption

  . submitted version -01 with these changes: references are updated,
       o added packets in flight definition to Section 2

  . submitted version -02 with updated address.

  . submitted version -03 to fix the nits.

  . submitted version -04 in reference to the WG Last call comments.

  . Submitted version - 05 to address IETF LC comments from TSV area.

13. References

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13.1. Normative References

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
             Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
             Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
             RFC 826, DOI 10.17487/RFC0826, November 1982,
             <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc826>.

    [RFC0903]  Finlayson, R., Mann, T., Mogul, J., and M. Theimer, "A
             Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", STD 38, RFC 903,
             DOI 10.17487/RFC0903, June 1984, <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc903>.

    [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

    [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
             DOI 10.17487/RFC2629, June 1999,  <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc2629>.

    [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
             "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
             DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,  <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

    [RFC7348]  Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P.,
             Kreeger,  L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright,
             "Virtual  eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN): A
             Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over
             Layer 3 Networks", RFC 7348, DOI 10.17487/RFC7348, August
             2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7348>.

    [RFC7364]  Narten, T., Ed., Gray, E., Ed., Black, D., Fang, L.,
             Kreeger, L., and M. Napierala, "Problem Statement:
             Overlays for Network Virtualization", RFC 7364,  DOI
             10.17487/RFC7364, October 2014,  <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc7364>.

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    [RFC8014]  Black, D., Hudson, J., Kreeger, L., Lasserre, M., and T.
             Narten, "An Architecture for Data-Center Network
             Virtualization over Layer 3 (NVO3)", RFC 8014,  DOI
             10.17487/RFC8014, December 2016, <https://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc8014>.

13.2. Informative References

    [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila] Herbert, T. and P. Lapukhov, "Identifier-
             locator addressing for IPv6", draft-herbert-nvo3-ila-04
             (work in progress), March 2017.

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Authors' Addresses

   Linda Dunbar
   Futurewei
   Email: ldunbar@futurewei.com

   Behcet Sarikaya
   Denpel Informatique
   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org

   Bhumip Khasnabish
   Independent
   Email: vumip1@gmail.com

   Tom Herbert
   Intel
   Email: tom@herbertland.com

   Saumya Dikshit
   Aruba-HPE
   Bangalore, India
   Email: saumya.dikshit@hpe.com

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