TLS-based EAP types and TLS 1.3

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Last updated 2020-07-29
Replaces draft-dekok-emu-tls-eap-types
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Network Working Group                                        DeKok, Alan
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                FreeRADIUS
Updates: 5247, 5281, 7170                                   29 July 2020
Category: Standards Track
Expires: January 29, 2021

                    TLS-based EAP types and TLS 1.3


   EAP-TLS [RFC5216] is being updated for TLS 1.3 in [EAPTLS].  Many
   other EAP [RFC3748] and [RFC5247] types also depend on TLS, such as
   FAST [RFC4851], TTLS [RFC5281], TEAP [RFC7170], and possibly many
   vendor specific EAP methods.  This document updates those methods in
   order to use the new key derivation methods available in TLS 1.3.
   Additional changes necessitated by TLS 1.3 are also discussed.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal

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   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

1.  Introduction .............................................    4
   1.1.  Requirements Language ...............................    4
2.  Using TLS-based EAP methods with TLS 1.3 .................    5
   2.1.  Key Derivation ......................................    5
   2.2.  TEAP ................................................    6
   2.3.  FAST ................................................    7
   2.4.  TTLS ................................................    7
   2.5.  PEAP ................................................    8
3.  Application Data .........................................    8
4.  Security Considerations ..................................    9
5.  IANA Considerations ......................................    9
6.  References ...............................................   10
   6.1.  Normative References ................................   10
   6.2.  Informative References ..............................   11

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1.  Introduction

   EAP-TLS is being updated for TLS 1.3 in [EAPTLS].  Many other EAP
   types also depend on TLS, such as FAST [RFC4851], TTLS [RFC5281],
   TEAP [RFC7170], and possibly many vendor specific EAP methods.  All
   of these methods use key derivation functions that rely on the
   information which is no longer available in TLS 1.3.  As such, all of
   those methods are incompatible with TLS 1.3.

   We wish to enable the use of TLS 1.3 in the wider Internet community.
   As such, it is necessary to update the above EAP types.  These
   changes involve defining new key derivation functions.  We also
   discuss implementation issues in order to highlight differences
   between TLS 1.3 and earlier versions of TLS.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

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2.  Using TLS-based EAP methods with TLS 1.3

   In general, all of the requirements of [EAPTLS] apply to other EAP
   methods that wish to use TLS 1.3.  Unless otherwise discusses herein,
   implementations of EAP methods that wish to use TLS 1.3 MUST follow
   the guidelines in [EAPTLS].

   There remain some differences between EAP-TLS and other TLS-based EAP
   methods which necessitates this document.  The main difference is
   that [EAPTLS] uses the EAP-TLS type ID (0x0D) in a number of
   calculations, whereas other method types will use their own type ID
   instead of the EAP-TLS type ID.  This topic is discussed further
   below in Section 2.

   An additional difference is that the [EAPTLS] Section 2.5 requires a
   Commitment Message to be sent once the EAP-TLS handshake is done.
   When other TLS-based EAP methods send application data, this
   Commitment Message is not needed, and is therefore not sent.
   However, when application data is not sent, as with fast reconnect,
   the Commitment Message is still required.

   Finally, the document includes clarifications on how various TLS-
   based parameters are calculated when using TLS 1.3.  These parameters
   are different for each EAP method, so they are discussed separately.

2.1.  Key Derivation

   The key derivation for TLS-based EAP methods depends on the value of
   the Type-Code as defined by [IANA].  The most important definition is
   of the Type-Code:

      Type-Code  = EAP Method type

   The Type-Code is defined to be 1 octet for values smaller than 255.
   Where expanded EAP Type Codes are used, the Type-Code is defined to
   be the Expanded Type Code (including the Type, Vendor-Id (in network
   byte order) and Vendor-Type fields (in network byte order) defined in
   [RFC3748] Section 5.7).

      Type-Code  = 0xFE || Vendor-Id || Vendor-Type

   Unless otherwise discussed below, the key derivation functions for
   all TLS-based EAP types are defined as follows:

      Key_Material = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER_EAP_TLS_Key_Material",
                                   Type-Code, 128)
      IV           = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER_EAP_TLS_IV", Type-Code, 64)
      Method-Id    = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER_EAP_TLS_Method-Id",

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                                   Type-Code, 64)
      Session-Id   = Type-Code || Method-Id
      MSK          = Key_Material(0, 63)
      EMSK         = Key_Material(64, 127)
      Enc-RECV-Key = MSK(0, 31)
      Enc-SEND-Key = MSK(32, 63)
      RECV-IV      = IV(0, 31)
      SEND-IV      = IV(32, 63)

   We note that these definitions re-use the EAP-TLS exporter labels,
   and change the derivation only by adding a dependency on Type-Code.
   The reason for this change is simplicity.  There does not appear to
   be compelling reasons to make the labels method-specific, when we can
   just include the Type-Code in the key derivation.

   These definitions apply in their entirety to TTLS [RFC5281] and PEAP
   as defined in [PEAP] and [MSPEAP].  Some definitions apply to FAST
   and TEAP, with exceptions as noted below.

   It is RECOMMENDED that vendor-defined TLS-based EAP methods use the
   above definitions for TLS 1.3.  There is insufficient reason to use
   different definitions.

2.2.  TEAP

   [RFC7170] Section 5.2 gives a definition for the Inner Method Session
   Key (IMSK), which depends on the TLS-PRF.  We update that definition
   for TLS 1.3 as:

      IMSK = TLS-Exporter("", EMSK, 32)

   For MSK and EMSK, TEAP [RFC7170] cannot use the derivation given
   above in Section Those methods use an inner tunnel EMSK to calculate
   the outer EMSK.  As such, those key derivations cannot use the above

   The other key derivations for TEAP are given here.  All derivations
   not given here are the same as given above in the previous section.
   These derivations are also used for FAST, but using the FAST Type-

      session_key_seed = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER: session key seed",
      Type-Code, 40)

      S-IMCK[0] = session_key_seed
        For j = 1 to n-1 do
             IMCK[j] = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER: Inner Methods Compound
      Keys", S-IMCK[j-1] | IMSK[j], 60)

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             S-IMCK[j] = first 40 octets of IMCK[j]
             CMK[j] = last 20 octets of IMCK[j]

   Where | denotes concatenation.  MSK and EMSK are then derived from
   the above definitions, as:

      MSK  = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER: Session Key Generating Function",
      S-IMCK[j], 64)

      EMSK = TLS-Exporter("EXPORTER: Extended Session Key Generating
      Function", S-IMCK[j], 64)

   The TEAP Compound MAC defined in [RFC7170] Section 5.3 is updated to
   use the definition of CMK[j] given above, which then leads to the
   following definition

      CMK = CMK[j]

      Compound-MAC = MAC( CMK, BUFFER )

   where j is the number of the last successfully executed inner EAP
   method, MAC is the MAC function negotiated in TLS 1.3.  The
   definition of BUFFER is unchanged from [RFC7170] Section 5.3

2.3.  FAST

   For FAST, the session_key_seed is also used as the key_block, as
   defined in [RFC4851] Section 5.1.

   The definition of S-IMCK[n], MSK, and EMSK are the same as given
   above for TEAP.  We reiterate that the EAP-FAST Type-Code must be
   used when deriving the session_key_seed, and not the TEAP Type-Code.

   Unlike [RFC4851] Section 5.2, the definition of IMCK[j] places the
   reference to S-IMCK after the textual label, and the concatenates the
   IMSK instead of MSK.

   EAP-FAST previously used a PAC, which is a type of pre-shared key
   (PSK).  Such uses are deprecated in TLS 1.3.  As such, PAC
   provisioning is no longer part of EAP-FAST when TLS 1.3 is used.

   The T-PRF given in [RFC4851] Section 5.5 is not used for TLS 1.3.

2.4.  TTLS

   [RFC5281] Section 11.1 defines an implicit challenge when the inner
   methods of CHAP [RFC1994], MS-CHAP [RFC2433], or MS-CHAPv2 [RFC2759]
   are used.  The derivation for TLS 1.3 is instead given as

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   EAP-TTLS_challenge = TLS-Exporter("ttls challenge",, n)

   There no "context_value" ([RFC8446] Section 7.5) passed to the TLS-
   Exporter function.  The value "n" given here is the length of the
   challenge required, which varies according to the challenge.

   Note that unlike TLS 1.2 and earlier, the calculation of TLS-Exporter
   depends on the length passed to it.  Implementations therefore MUST
   pass the correct length, instead of passing a large length and
   truncating the output.  Any truncated output will be different from
   the output calculated using the correct length.

2.5.  PEAP

   When PEAP uses crypto binding, it uses a different key calculation
   defined in [PEAP-MPPE] which consumes inner method keying material.
   The pseudo-random function (PRF) used here is not taken from the TLS
   exporter, but is instead calculated via a different method which is
   given in [PEAP-PRF].  That derivation remains unchanged in this

   However, the key calculation uses a PEAP Tunnel Key [PEAP-TK] which
   is defined as:

       ... the TK is the first 60 octets of the Key_Material, as
      specified in [RFC5216]: TLS-PRF-128 (master secret, "client EAP
      encryption", client.random || server.random).

   We note that this text does not define Key_Material.  Instead, it
   defines TK as the first octets of Key_Material, and gives a
   definition of Key_Material which is appropriate for TLS versions
   before TLS 1.3.

   For TLS 1.3, the TK should instead be derived from the Key_Material
   defined above in Section 2.1.

3.  Application Data

   Unlike previous TLS version, TLS 1.3 continues negotiation after the
   TLS session has been initialized.  Some implementations use the TLS
   "Finished" state as a signal that application data is now available,
   and an "inner tunnel" session can now be negotiated.  As noted in
   [RFC8446], TLS 1.3 may include a "NewSessionTicket" after the
   "Finished" state.  This change can cause many implementations to

   In order to correct this failure, if the underlying TLS connection is
   still performing negotiations, then implementations MUST NOT send, or

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   expect to receive application data in the TLS session.

   [EAPTLS] Section 2.5 requires a one octet Commitment message which
   indicates that TLS negotiation has finished.  Methods which use
   "inner tunnel" methods MUST instead begin their "inner tunnel"
   negotiation by sending type-specific application data.  However, if
   no "inner tunnel" negotiation is performed (as with fast reconnect),
   then a Commitment Message MUST be sent as per [EAPTLS] Section 2.5.

4.  Security Considerations

   [EAPTLS] Section 5 is included here by reference.

   Updating the above EAP methods to use TLS 1.3 is of high importance
   for the Internet Community.  Using the most recent security protocols
   can significantly improve security and privace of a network.

   In some cases, client certificates are not used for TLS-based EAP
   methods.  In those cases, the user is authenticated only after
   successful completion of the inner tunnel authentication.  However,
   the TLS protocol sends a NewSessionTicket after receiving the TLS
   Finished message from the client, and therefore before the user is

   This separation of data allows for a "time of use, time of check"
   security issue.  Malicious clients can begin a session and receive
   the NewSessionTicket.  Then prior to authentication, the malicious
   client can abort the authentication session.  The malicious client
   can then use the obtained NewSessionTicket to "resume" the previous

   As a result, EAP servers MUST NOT permit sessions to be resumed until
   after authentication has successfully completed.  This requirement
   may be met in a number of ways.  For example, by not caching the
   session ticket until after authentication has completed, or by
   marking up the cached session ticket with a flag stating whether or
   not authentication has completed.

   For PEAP, some derivation use HMAC-SHA1 [PEAP-MPPE].  There are no
   known security issues with HMAC-SHA1.  In the interests of
   interoperability and minimal changes, we do not change that
   definition here.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This section provides guidance to the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) regarding registration of values related to the TLS-
   based EAP methods for TLS 1.3 protocol in accordance with [RFC8126].

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   This memo requires IANA to add the following labels to the TLS
   Exporter Label Registry defined by [RFC5705].  These labels are used
   in derivation of Key_Material, IV and Method-Id as defined above in
   Section 2.

   The labels above need to be added to the "TLS Exporter Labels"

   * EXPORTER: session key seed * EXPORTER: Inner Methods Compound Keys
   * EXPORTER: Session Key Generating Function * EXPORTER: Extended
   Session Key Generating Function *

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
     Levels", RFC 2119, March, 1997,  <http://www.rfc->.

     Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
     Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748,
     June 2004.

     Simon, D., Aboba, B., and R. Hurst, "The EAP-TLS Authentication
     Protocol", RFC 5216, March 2008

     Aboba, B., Simon, D., and P. Eronen, "Extensible Authentication
     Protocol (EAP) Key Management Framework", RFC 5247, August 2008,

     Rescorla, E., "Keying Material Exporters for Transport Layer
     Security (TLS)", RFC 5705, March 2010

     Zhou, H., et al., "Tunnel Extensible Authentication Protocol (TEAP)
     Version 1", RFC 7170, May 2014.

     Cotton, M., et al, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations
     Section in RFCs", RC 8126, June 2017.

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     Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key
     Words", RFC 8174, May 2017, <http://www.rfc->.

     Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version
     1.3", RFC 8446, August 2018.

     Mattsson, J., and Sethi, M., "Using EAP-TLS with TLS 1.3", draft-
     ietf-emu-eap-tls13-03, November 2018.


6.2.  Informative References


     Palekar, A. et al, "Protected EAP Protocol (PEAP)", draft-
     josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-06.txt, March 2003.




     Simpson, W., "PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
     (CHAP)", RFC 1994, August 1996.

     Zorn, G. and Cobb, S., "Microsoft PPP CHAP Extensions", RFC 2433,
     October 1998.

     Zorn, G., "Microsoft PPP CHAP Extensions, Version 2", RFC 2759,

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     January 2000.

     Cam-Winget, N., et al, "The Flexible Authentication via Secure
     Tunneling Extensible Authentication Protocol Method (EAP-FAST)",
     RFC 4851, May 2007.

     Funk, P., and Blake-Wilson, S., "Extensible Authentication Protocol
     Tunneled Transport Layer Security Authenticated Protocol Version 0
     (EAP-TTLSv0)", RFC 5281, August 2008.


   Thanks to Jorge Vergara for a detailed review of the requirements for
   various EAP types, and for assistance with interoperability testing.

   Authors' Addresses

      Alan DeKok
      The FreeRADIUS Server Project


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