Feminism and protocols
draft-guerra-feminism-01

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Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group            J. Guerra
Internet-Draft                                        Derechos Digitales
Intended status: Informational                                 M. Knodel
Expires: January 9, 2020                                      ARTICLE 19
                                                           July 08, 2019

                         Feminism and protocols
                        draft-guerra-feminism-01

Abstract

   This document aims to describe how internet standards, protocols and
   its implementations may impact diverse groups and communities.  The
   research on how some protocol can be enabler for specific human
   rights while possibly restricting others has been documented in
   [RFC8280].  Similar to how RFC 8280 has taken a human rights lens
   through which to view engineering and design choices by internet
   standardisation, this document addresgses the opportunities and
   vulnerabilities embedded within internet protocols for specific,
   traditionally maginalised groups.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents

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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  An intersectional perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       1.1.1.  Internet as a matrix of domination  . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Brief history of feminism and the internet  . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Feminist Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.1.  Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.1.2.  Access to information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.1.3.  Usage of technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Networked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.1.  Resistance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.2.  Movement building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.3.  Internet governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.3.  Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.1.  Business models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.2.  Open source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.4.  Expression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.4.1.  Amplify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.4.2.  Expression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.4.3.  Pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   4.  Embodiment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.1.  Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.1.  Privacy and data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.2.  Memory  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.1.3.  Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.1.4.  Children  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.2.  Online violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  References not yet referenced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   8.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

1.  Introduction

   This document aims to use a feminist framework to analyse the impacts
   of internet protocols on society.  It is based on a document called
   The The Feminist Principles of the Internet [FPI], a series of 17
   statements with a "gender and sexual rights lens on critical

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   internet-related rights" for the purpose of enabling women's rights
   movements to explore issues related to internet technology.

   These Principles, as well as most of the experiences and learnings of
   the feminist movement in the digital age, have focused on invisioning
   a more just internet as a necessary action in building a more just
   society, namely one that recognizes differences across a variety of
   lived experience and identity.

   This document must not be understood as a set of rules or
   recommendations, but as an articulation of key issues with feminist
   policies and approaches, in order to begin to investigate.  That is
   why this document has two main goals: to identify terminology, both
   in technical and feminist communities, that can be shared in order to
   start a dialogue; and to analyze the Feminist Principles based on
   some of the technical discussions that have been taken into account
   in the development of protocols.

   In what follows, this document first describes the feminist
   theoretical framework from which it proposes to analyze the impacts
   of the protocols on marginalized and discriminated communities.  In
   the second part, describes the methodology used to connect the
   framework mentioned above with the Feminist Principles of the
   internet.  In the third part, characteristics of each principle, as
   well as the harms on which they are based, the possible points where
   they connect with IETF work and related rights, are described.

   This is still a work in progress so many sections are yet to be done.
   Coming soon will be added use cases as examples of how protocols and
   standards can restrict the use of the internet by certain communities
   and individuals.

1.1.  An intersectional perspective

   Imagine a highway that connects two big cities, one capable of
   withstanding heavy traffic at high speeds.  Driving there takes
   experience and expertise, and just a few streets intersect it so as
   not to hinder traffic.  Imagine this highway as a robust body of
   rights and those who travel along it as people who have traditionally
   enjoyed these rights.

   If someone without enough experience is driving down a road that
   intersects the highway and wants to get there, that person will be at
   greater risk of crashing or having an accident.  In addition, without
   a valid license the person will also run the risk of being fined by
   the traffic authorities.  In terms of rights, those intersecting
   roads are not robust and the risks of accident are forms of

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   discrimination experienced by those who drive on them.  What if many
   small streets intersect at the same point on the highway?

   Arised in black feminist theory, the concept of intersectionality
   serves to understand how multiple forms of discrimination overlap
   [Collins].  As first pointed by [Crenshaw] in the United States,
   "Black women can experience discrimination in ways that are both
   similar to and different from those experienced by white women and
   Black men", so an intersectional approach should be able to recognize
   this type of discrimination by transcending the one-way perspective
   with which the justice system, as well as feminist and anti-racist
   movements, had traditionally operated.

   From this proposal, the concept has meant a paradigm shift both in
   feminist thinking [Collins] and movements [Lorde][Davis], and more
   recently in the design and implementation of public policies
   [Mason][Hankivsky].  The intersectional approach is not focused on
   the problem of equality but on difference; discrimination is not
   analyzed in terms of effective access to rights, but the conditions
   and capacities that people have to access those rights.

   Therefore, an intersectional feminist perspective focuses on social
   location, the multiple layered identities people live, derived from
   social relations, history and structures of power through which
   people can experience both oppression and privilege.  These
   oppressions can be structural and dynamic, determined by gender, race
   or skin color, class, sexuality, ethnicity, age, language, geographic
   location, abilities or health conditions, among other factors
   [Symington].

   The concept _matrix of domination_, introduced by [Collins] as
   complementary to _intersectionality_, refers to the way in which the
   powers that produce and reproduce intersecting oppression are
   organized.  In summary, the concept _intersectionality_ has served to
   recognize people's different experiences and social locations and
   with this, the need of a bottom up understanding of discrimination
   and oppression; in addition, the concept _matrix of domination_ turns
   the gaze on the context of power -institutional, political, economic
   and symbolic- in which intersecting oppressions operate.

1.1.1.  Internet as a matrix of domination

   The gender and sexual rights lens on critical internet-related rights
   contained in the Feminist Principles of the Internet has been built
   bottom up by the feminist movement [FPI], which treats most
   prominently people who are negatively discriminated against on the
   basis of their gender and sexuality, but not exclusively.  Because
   the threats to women and queer people, whose bodies and

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   manifestations are already under strong, albeit sometimes invisible,
   social, cultural and political surveillance, an intersectional
   feminist analysis makes it possible to recognize how multiple
   oppressions affect the ways people access, use and participate on the
   internet.

   From now on, some of these experiences will be used to identify how
   the Internet can enable or restrict the possibility of justice and
   equity among its users.  For this purpose, it is useful to understand
   the internet as a _matrix of domination_ in the sense pointed by
   [Collins]: as an institutional, political, symbolic and cultural
   context where different intersecting oppressions are shaped and
   reinforced.

   This document addresses the opportunities and vulnerabilities
   incorporated into Internet protocols for specific, traditionally
   discriminated groups, on the assumption that these values are
   inherent in technological design.  Through the proposed
   intersectional perspective, a multilevel description of the factors,
   processes and social structures that affect different experiences on
   the Internet is presented below and, based on specific cases, an
   analysis will be made of how the different protocols intervene in the
   shaping and reinforcement of intersecting oppressions faced by users
   on different social locations.

1.2.  Brief history of feminism and the internet

   The ways in which feminists have understood, used and mobilised on
   the internet is significant for a baseline understanding of how
   internet protocols and feminism intersect.  Intersectional feminist
   action and analysis can be collected into two strategies: addressing
   the status quo and creating alternatives.  Feminists on the early
   internet embodied both.

   It is important to note here that there has always existed a gender
   gap in access to the internet, which is exacerbated by global wealth
   inequality.

   Since the 1980s, feminist movements have used the internet to
   challenge power.  Globalisation.  Development.  Cyberfeminism.
   Internet governance.  There is a deeper connection to the internet
   and social justice struggles in which communication becomes the
   primary strategy to address inequality.  Indeed, in "A History of
   Feminist Engagement with Development and Digital Technologies" Anita
   Gurumurthy writes, "the history of the right to communicate reveals
   the contestation between powerful status quoist forces and those who
   seek transformative, global change for justice and equality."

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   At the same time, feminists were using the internet to create
   feminist space.

   Author Feminista Jones argues in "Reclaiming Our Space: How Black
   Feminists Are Changing the World from the Tweets to the Streets" that
   the feminist alternative spaces have become mainstream and are
   leading analysis and critique of the status quo, a merging and
   strengthening of the two strategies that emerge from this particular
   historical framing.

   Given these myriad expressions of feminism online and feminist
   movement building online, one thread is perhaps most instructive to
   this exercise, which we use as the basis for this document: Feminist
   Principles of the Internet.  More about the nature of the complex
   community that created the Feminist Principles of the Internet can be
   found at feministinternet.org.  The principles, drafted and revised
   by hundreds of feminists mostly in the global south, highlight
   historical feminist themes for the digital age in its main
   categories: access, movements, economy, expression and embodiment.

2.  Methodology

   -  Research: Archive review, HRPC-RG documents, Use cases (bottom-up,
      participative process within feministinternet community (TODO))

   -  Presentation: principle, harm identified, related protocols and
      rights.

   TODO

3.  Feminist Principles

3.1.  Access

   Internet access is recognized as a human right [UNGA], but its
   effective guarantee depends on different and unequal social,
   cultural, economic and political conditions.  In 2018, barely half of
   the world's population has access to the internet and in 88% of
   countries, men have more access than women [ITU].  Geographical
   location, age, educational and income level, as well as gender,
   significantly determine how people access to the internet
   [WebFoundation].

   The Feminist Principles of the Internet [FPI] explore a broad
   understanding of the term beyond technicalities.  It seeks to connect
   the technical fact to gendered and socio-economic realities.

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3.1.1.  Internet access

   Access must be to a universal, acceptable, affordable, unconditional,
   open, meaningful and equal internet, which guarantees rights rather
   than restricts them [FPI].  As some bodies have always been subject
   to social and cultural surveillance and violence because of their
   gender and sexuallity, their access to internet will not be satisfied
   with connected devices, but with safety and useful digital
   enviroments [SmKee].

   Harms: Restricted connectivity. i.e. Middleboxes (which can be
   Content Delivery Networks, Firewalls, NATs or other intermediary
   nodes that provide 'services'besides routing).  TODO

   Related protocols: The end-to-end principle is important for the
   robustness of the network and innovation (RFC1958); Content
   agnosticism: Treating network traffic identically regardless of
   content.

   Related rights: Freedom of expression, freedom of association.

3.1.2.  Access to information

   Women and queer people have traditionally had restricted their
   reproductive and sexual rights.  Today their rights are resticted in
   different levels and qualities in differents countries and regions.
   It is necessary to guarantee access to relevant information related
   to sexual and reproductive health and rights, pleasure, safe
   abortion, access to justice, and LGBTIQ+ issues.

   Harms: Some goverments and ISPs block pages with this content or
   monitor online activity by sexual and gender related terminology.
   Therefore the considerations for anticensorship internet
   infrastructure technologies also consider, and can possibly
   alleviate, a gendered component to using the internet.

   TODO.  Blocked sites, Monitoring by content, identify users by IP or
   type of traffic.

   Related protocols: Information in one's own language is the first
   condition, as pointed out with the cencept of 'Localization'
   [RFC8280], referred to the act of tailoring an application for a
   different language, script, or culture, and involves not only
   changing the language interaction but also other relevant changes,
   such as display of numbers, dates, currency, and so on.

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   TODO.  Content agnosticism: Treating network traffic identically
   regardless of content (but it refers to header content).  Censorship
   resistance.

   Related rights: FoE, FoA, Right to political participation, Right to
   participate in cultural life, arts and science.

3.1.3.  Usage of technology

   Beyond content, access implies the possibility to use, which means
   code, design, adapt and critically and sustainably use ICTs.  Even
   though almost 75% of connected individuals are placed in the Global
   South [WhoseKnowledge], technology is developped mainly in rich
   countries where student quotas and jobs are filled mainly by men.

   However, there is still a long way to go in terms of inclusion of
   more diverse populations in the spaces of technology development and
   definition of protocoles and standards for the internet
   infrastructure [RFC7704].  Building and engineering critical internet
   technology is a component of 'usage' [Knodel], one which chllenges
   challenge the cultures of sexism and discrimination.

   Harms: Gender and race bian in algorithms, digital gender gap.
   Necessary to know the charset, gap.  The presence of gendered
   subjects in the IETF RFCs and drafts archive demonstrates stereotyped
   male and feminine roles.

   Related protocols: The concept of 'Internationalization' [RFC6365]
   refers to the practice of making protocols, standards, and
   implementations usable in different languages.  This is a first step
   to democratize the development of technology, allowing its
   implementation in non-English-speaking countries.

   TODO.  [RFC5646] descentralization, reliability.  Adaptability
   (permissionless innovation).

   Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
   science

3.2.  Networked

   In contexts where women do not have their rights fully guaranteed, or
   where sexual and gender diversity are socially condemned, the Web has
   served to meet, organize and resist.  With the popularization of the
   internet, the freedom of expression of both women and other gender
   identities traditionally marginalized from public life and social
   acceptance (whom we refer to as queer) has been greatly enhanced.

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   By adding content in formats like text, audio and video, these groups
   have been able to connect with each other, as well as open spaces for
   discussion and visibility of topics that previously seemed vetoed.
   The web has become a space for activism, reclamation and protest
   against injustice and gender inequality.  It has allowed the
   construction of international networks of solidarity, support and
   mobilization, and with this, the strengthening of feminism and other
   movements that fight for equal rights and for a fair recognition of
   difference.

3.2.1.  Resistance

   The internet is a space where social norms are negotiated, performed
   and imposed.  For users it increasingly functions as an extension of
   offline spaces shaped by patriarchy and heteronormativity.  Disident
   content as well as widely accepted norms and values should have the
   same possibilities to be added, flow and stay on the net.

   Harms: content blocking, content monitoring and identification,
   traffic monitoring

   Related to protocols: Integrity

   Related rights: Freedom of expression, Freedom of association.

3.2.2.  Movement building

   Given the shrinking of civic space offline, the internet provides a
   global public space, albeit one that relies on private infrastructure
   [tenOever].  For social causes that push for equality, it is
   therefore critical that the internet be maintained as a space for
   alignment, protest, dissent and escape.  In the scope of this
   document, this is a call to maintain and enable the creation of
   spaces for sustained feminist movement building.  Ihe internet
   provides new and novel ways for communities to come together across
   borders and without limits of geolocation.

   Harms: However this positive aspect of internet communications is
   threatened by centralised systems of control and cooptation,
   specifically surveillance and other online repression.

   Related protocols: Association of system architectures is a concept
   that overlaps neatly with the ideals of real-world associations of
   organisations and communities.  "The ultimate model of P2P is a
   completely decentralized system, which is more resistant to speech
   regulation, immune to single points of failure and have a higher
   performance and scalability [tenOever]."  It can be descussed in
   terms of intersectionailty and what we mentioned about 'different

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   dimensions of freedom'.  Maybe the 'solution' is not only P2P because
   it doesn't take into account different distances from and capacities
   related to this technology, maybe mixed with another feature?.
   Integrity.

   Related rights: Elements of freedom of assocation as explained in the
   UDHR include individual and collective rights to privacy and
   anonymity, as discussed in more detail below.

3.2.3.  Internet governance

   It is critical for groups who represent civil society interests,
   social change and the larger public interest to challenge processes
   and institutions that govern the internet.  This requires the
   inclusion of more feminists and queers at the decision-making table,
   which can be achieved through democratic policy making.  Greater
   effect will be possible through diffuse ownership of and power in
   global and local networks.

   Harms: Gender gap

   Related to protocols: While there is no agreement regarding the
   ability of the internet to negatively or positively impact on social
   behaviors, or shape desirable practices [RFC8280], more women and
   diverse populations' participation in technical development and
   decision-making spaces will lead to greater possibilities for ICTs to
   reflect greater inclusiveness and enable less risky and harmful
   interactions [RFC7704].

   Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
   science

3.3.  Economy

   From a feminist perspective, it is necessary to achieve the promise
   of an internet that facilitates economic cooperation and
   collaboration.  One internet that can challenge models of economic
   inequality and transcend into other forms where women and queer
   people are not relegated or in economic dependence.

3.3.1.  Business models

   Interrogating the capitalist logic that drives technology towards
   further privatisation, profit and corporate control implies open
   discussions on centralisation of services and the logic of vertical
   integration while holding nuance for the tensions between trust,
   reliability and diversity.

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   Alternative forms of economic power can be grounded in principles of
   cooperation, solidarity, commons, environmental sustainability and
   openness.

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: Centralisation of services is a current discussion
   in the IETF that should be informed by feminist critique of
   capitalist structures [Arkko].  End user centered; W3C,
   descentralization.

   Related rights: TODO

3.3.2.  Open source

   The digital gender gap has relegated women and other marginalized
   groups to be internet users, adding content for the benefit of the
   platforms themselves but without a deep understanding of how these
   platforms work.  This requires shared terminology upon which
   technology is created to enable experimentation and values exchange.
   Not only that, but documenting, promoting, disseminating, and sharing
   knowledge about technology is at the heart of the long-standing free
   software community's ethos.  This aligns with a feminist approach to
   technology.

   Given the established community of "free software", it is important
   to note that freedom is not freedom for everyone, always.  It is
   important to identify different dimensions of freedom and how it is
   expressed in different contexts.

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: Promoting transparency [RFC8280] and simplifying
   technical terminology is necessary to bridge this gap.
   Interoperabiliy, Open standards are important as they allow for
   permissionless innovation.  Freedom and ability to freely create and
   deploy new protocols on top of the communications constructs that
   currently exist.  Open standards.

   Related rights: Right to participate in cultural life, arts and
   science

3.4.  Expression

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3.4.1.  Amplify

   The state, the religious right and other extremist forces who
   monopolise discourses of morality have traditionally silence women's
   voices and continue to silence feminist voices and persecute women's
   human rights defenders.

   Harms: Blocking and monitoring content, identifiyng site owners,
   manipulating indexed content on search engines, Trolling, coordinated
   attackes (DoS and DDoS).

   Related protocols: Content agnosticism: Treating network traffic
   identically regardless of content, anti censorship.

   Related rights: Freedom of expression, Freedom of association, Access
   to information

3.4.2.  Expression

   The political expression of gender has not been limited to voices,
   but has made use of the body and its representation.  However, the
   use of body as a form of political expression on the internet implies
   a series of risks and vulnerabilities for the people involved in
   these movements, especially if they do not understand how internet
   technology works.

   Harms: Surveillance, content regulations or restrictions, content
   blocking.

   Related protocols: Confidentiality, keeping data secret from
   unintended listeners [BCP72].  Data protection [RFC1984].  Encryption

   Related rights: Freedom of expression

3.4.3.  Pornography

   Women's sexual expression online is socially condemned and punushed
   with online gender based violence.  On the other hand, queer people
   online sexuality is usually labeld as "harmful content".  These
   practices evidence how overcontrolled are gendered bodies and tend to
   confuse the differences between sexual expression and pornography.

   Users build their own public digital identities while using private
   communications to disseminate information, explore their sexuality in
   text, image and video, share their initmity with others.  Pornography
   online, on the other hand, has to do with agency, consent, power and
   labour.

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   Harms: In internet-connected devices, it has become much easier to
   mix leisure and work, which implies different risks for users.

   Related protocols: [RFC3675]

   Related rights: Freedom of expression

4.  Embodiment

   Most of the threats women and queer people face on line, occur on the
   user levels of application and content.  Most adversaries are other
   users, but also include institutions, platforms and governments.

   For a long time, perhaps since the internet became popular, its use
   ceased to be a functional matter and became emotional.  The access to
   chat rooms to connect with people at huge distances, the possibility
   of having personal e-mails, the appearance of social networks to
   share music, photos and then video, determined not only the social
   use of a new tool but also the configuration of digital
   sensitivities, understood by some as sensory extensions of the body.

   The internet connections embedded have also meant a radical
   transformation in the way people access the internet.  Much more,
   considering that today most internet connections, especially in the
   global south, are mobile connections.

   Sharing personal information, and often sensitive data, through
   platforms that are synchronized with email accounts and other
   platforms where information considered non-sensitive is published,
   implies losing control over such information.  Much more, considering
   that each platform hosts the information of its users according to
   their own terms and conditions in the treatment of data.  For women
   and other groups marginalized by race or gender, these risks are
   greater.

   Just as the internet connection can be considered an extension of the
   body, social problems such as discrimination and exclusion have been
   projected into the digital environment- sometimes intensified,
   sometimes reconfigured.  And once again, women, queers, racialized
   people are the most vulnerable.  Most of the threats they face on
   line, occur in the user level.  Most of their "adversaries" are other
   users, who also act at the user level, with technical or social
   skills that threaten participation and expressions.  Institutions,
   platforms and governments who are adversarial have great advantage.

   At this point, what level of autonomy do these people have as
   internet users?

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4.1.  Consent

   Some elements of consent online include but are not limited to the
   following list of issues, which should be elaborated on:

   -  Data protection * Exposure of personal data

   -  Culture, design, policies and terms of service of internet
      platforms

   -  Agency lies in informed decisions * Real name policies

   -  Public versus private information * Dissemination of personal or
      intimate information * Exposure of intimacy * Unauthorized use of
      photos

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

4.1.1.  Privacy and data

   While mentioned at the intersection of previous issues outlined
   above, this section is particularly critical for women, queers and
   marginalised populations who are already at greater risk of control
   and surveillance:

   -  Right to privacy

   -  Data protection

   -  Profit models

   -  Surveillance and patriarchy by states, individuals, private
      sector, etc.  Those that enable surveillance, eg spouseware.

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

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4.1.2.  Memory

   One's consent and control of the information that is available to
   them and about them online is a key aspect of being a fully empowered
   individual and community in the digital age.  There are several
   considerations that deserve deeper inspection, such as:

   -  Right to be forgotten

   -  Control over personal history and memory on the internet

   -  Access all our personal data and information online

   -  Delete forever

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

4.1.3.  Anonymity

   While anonymity is never just about technical issues but users
   protection activities, it becomes more necessary to strenghten the
   design and functionality of networks, by default.  There are several
   considerations for internet infrastructure related to enabling
   anonymity for online users.  This is particularly important for
   marginalised groups and can be ennumerated, and expanded upon,
   thusly:

   -  Right to anonymity

   -  Enables other rights like freedom of expression * Censorship *
      Defamation, descredit * Affectations to expression channels

   -  Breaking social taboos and heteronormativity * Hate Speech,
      discriminatory expressions

   -  Discrimination and safety from discrimination

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

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4.1.4.  Children

   TODO

   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

4.2.  Online violence

   Where women and queer people have traditionally been marginalized,
   their participation in the internet is rejected through different
   forms of violence by other users, as well as institutions, platforms
   and governments.  But the effects of these violences, which are
   nothing more than extensions of the traditional violence that these
   groups and individuals face in social life, increase to the extent
   that there is not enough technical knowledge to neutralize them, and
   this is the case of most people who struggle for the recognition of
   their gender difference.

   The security considerations to counter online violence are critical.
   There is opportunity in a connected world for those who would
   perpetuate violence against women and other marginalised groups
   through the use of internet-enabled technologies, from the home to
   the prison.

   Privacy is a critical component of security for populations at risk.
   The control of information is linked to privacy.  Where some would
   like privacy in order to live privately, others need privacy in order
   to access information and circumvent censorship and surveillance.
   The protection of privacy is critical for those at risk to prevent
   vicimisation through extortion, doxxing, and myriad other threats.
   Lack of privacy leads to risks such as stalking, monitoring and
   persistent harrassment.

   While making public otherwise private details about a person can
   consitute a form of abuse, the converse is also a risk: Being erased
   from society or having one's online identity controlled by another is
   a form of control and manipulation.  Censorship, misinformation and
   coersion may consitute violence online.  Other forms of non-
   consensual manipulation of online content includes platform "real
   name policies", sharing of intimate images and sexual abuse,
   spreading false accusations, flamming and other tactics.

   Key to mitigating these threats is the element of consent.

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   Harms: TODO

   Related protocols: TODO

   Related rights: TODO

5.  References not yet referenced

   In plain sight, on sexuality, rights and the internet in India, Nepal
   and Sri Lanka https://www.genderit.org/articles/plain-sight-
   sexuality-rights-and-internet-india-nepal-and-sri-lanka

   Human Rights and Internet Protocols: Comparing Processes and
   Principles https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
   ISSUE_human_rights_2.pdf

   Principles of Unity for Infraestructuras Feministas
   https://pad.kefir.red/p/infraestucturas-feministas Feminist

   Principles of the Internet https://feministinternet.org The UX Guide
   to Getting Consent https://iapp.org/resources/article/the-ux-guide-
   to-getting-consent

   From steel to skin https://fermentos.kefir.red/english/aco-pele
   Responsible Data https://responsibledata.io

   Impact for what and for whom?  Digital technologies and feminist
   movement building internet https://www.genderit.org/feminist-talk/
   impact-what-and-whom-digital-technologies-and-feminist-movement-
   building

   Design Justice https://docs.google.com/presentation/
   d/1J3ZWBgxe0QFQ8OmUr-QzE6Be8k_sI7XF0VWu4wfMIVM/
   edit#slide=id.gcad8d6cb9_0_198

   Design Action Collective Points of Unity
   https://designaction.org/about/points-of-unity

   CODING RIGHTS; INTERNETLAB.  Violencias de genero na internet:
   diagnostico, solucoes e desafios.  Contribuicao conjunta do Brasil
   para a relatora especial da ONU sobre violencia contra a mulher.  Sao
   Paulo, 2017. https://www.codingrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/
   Relatorio_ViolenciaGenero_v061.pdf

   Barrera, L. y Rodriguez, C.  La violencia en linea contra las mujeres
   en Mexico.  Informe para la Relatora sobre Violencia contra las
   Mujeres Ms. Dubravka Šimonović. 2017.

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   https://luchadoras.mx/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/
   Informe_ViolenciaEnLineaMexico_InternetEsNuestra.pdf

   Sephard, N.  Big Data and Sexual Surveillance.  APC issue papers.
   2016. https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
   BigDataSexualSurveillance_0_0.pdf

6.  Security Considerations

   As this document concerns a research document, there are no security
   considerations.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

   Crenshaw, K. (2018).  Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and
   Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine,
   Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics [1989].  In K.  T.  Bartlett
   & R.  Kennedy (Eds.), Feminist Legal Theory (1st ed., pp. 57-80; By
   K.  Bartlett). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429500480-5

8.  Informative References

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              the Internet Architecture.", 2018,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-arkko-iab-internet-consolidation>.

   [BCP72]    IETF, "Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security
              Considerations", 2003,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/bcp72/>.

   [Collins]  Collins, P., "Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge,
              consciousness and the politics of empowerment.", 2000.

   [Comninos]
              Alex Comninos, ., "A cyber security Agenda for civil
              society: What is at stake?", 2013,
              <https://www.apc.org/sites/default/files/
              PRINT_ISSUE_Cyberseguridad_EN.pdf>.

   [Crenshaw]
              Crenshaw, K., "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race
              and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination
              Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics.",
              1989, <https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429500480-5>.

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   [Davis]    Davis, ., "unknown.", n.d..

   [FPI]      "The Feminist Principles of the Internet.", 2015,
              <https://feministinternet.org>.

   [Hankivsky]
              Hankivsky, O., "Intersectionality 101.", 2014,
              <http://vawforum-cwr.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/
              intersectionallity_101.pdf>.

   [ITU]      International Telecommunications Union (ITU),
              "Statisctics. Global, Regional and Country ICT Data.",
              2018, <https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/
              default.aspx>.

   [Knodel]   Knodel, M. and N. ten Oever, "Terminology, Power and
              Offensive Language.", 2018,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-knodel-terminology>.

   [Lorde]    Lorde, ., "unknown.", n.d..

   [Mason]    Mason, C., "Leading at the Intersections: An Introduction
              to the Intersectional Approach Model for Policy and Social
              Change.", 2010.

   [RFC1244]  Holbrook, J. and J. Reynolds, "Site Security Handbook",
              RFC 1244, DOI 10.17487/RFC1244, July 1991,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1244>.

   [RFC1746]  Manning, B. and D. Perkins, "Ways to Define User
              Expectations", RFC 1746, DOI 10.17487/RFC1746, December
              1994, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1746>.

   [RFC1941]  Sellers, J. and J. Robichaux, "Frequently Asked Questions
              for Schools", FYI 22, RFC 1941, DOI 10.17487/RFC1941, May
              1996, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1941>.

   [RFC1984]  IAB and IESG, "IAB and IESG Statement on Cryptographic
              Technology and the Internet", BCP 200, RFC 1984,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1984, August 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1984>.

   [RFC2122]  Mavrakis, D., Layec, H., and K. Kartmann, "VEMMI URL
              Specification", RFC 2122, DOI 10.17487/RFC2122, March
              1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2122>.

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   [RFC2310]  Holtman, K., "The Safe Response Header Field", RFC 2310,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2310, April 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2310>.

   [RFC3675]  Eastlake 3rd, D., ".sex Considered Dangerous", RFC 3675,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3675, February 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3675>.

   [RFC3694]  Danley, M., Mulligan, D., Morris, J., and J. Peterson,
              "Threat Analysis of the Geopriv Protocol", RFC 3694,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3694, February 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3694>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A., Ed. and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646,
              September 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.

   [RFC6365]  Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in
              Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6365>.

   [RFC7704]  Crocker, D. and N. Clark, "An IETF with Much Diversity and
              Professional Conduct", RFC 7704, DOI 10.17487/RFC7704,
              November 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7704>.

   [RFC8280]  ten Oever, N. and C. Cath, "Research into Human Rights
              Protocol Considerations", RFC 8280, DOI 10.17487/RFC8280,
              October 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8280>.

   [SmKee]    Jac Sm Kee, ., "Imagine a Feminist Internet.", 2018,
              <http://link.springer.com/10.1057/s41301-017-0137-2>.

   [Symington]
              Symington, A., "Intersectionality: a Tool for Gender and
              Economic Justice.", 2004,
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              rsectionality_a_tool_for_gender_and_economic_justice.pdf>.

   [Tao]      Internet Engineering Task Force, "The Tao of the IETF.",
              n.d., <https://www.ietf.org/about/participate/tao>.

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   [tenOever]
              ten Oever, N., "Freedom of Association on the Internet.",
              2017, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-irtf-hrpc-association>.

   [UNGA]     United Nations General Assembly, "The promotion,
              protection and enjoyment of human rights on the
              Internet.", 2012, <https://documents-dds-
              ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/G12/147/10/PDF/
              G1214710.pdf?OpenElement>.

   [WebFoundation]
              Web Foundation, "Advancing Women's Rights Online: Gaps and
              Opportunities in Policy and Research.", 2018,
              <http://webfoundation.org/docs/2018/08/Advancing-Womens-
              Rights-Online_Gaps-and-Opportunities-in-Policy-and-
              Research.pdf>.

   [WhoseKnowledge]
              Whose Knowledge, "Decolonizing the Internet, Summary
              Report.", 2018, <https://whoseknowledge.org/wp-
              content/uploads/2018/10/DTI-2018-Summary-Report.pdf>.

Authors' Addresses

   Juliana Guerra
   Derechos Digitales

   EMail: juliana@derechosdigitales.org

   Mallory Knodel
   ARTICLE 19

   EMail: mallory@article19.org

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