Common PGP/MIME Message Mangling

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Author Daniel Gillmor 
Last updated 2019-11-23 (latest revision 2019-05-22)
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


An e-mail message with OpenPGP encryption and/or signature has standard form. However, some mail transport agents damage those forms in transit. A user-friendly mail user agent that encounters such a mangled message may wish to try to process it anyway, despite the message's non-standard structure. This document aims to be a sort of bestiary of common message mangling patterns, along with guidance for implementers for how to cope with messages structured in these common ways.


Daniel Gillmor (

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid.)