Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP
RFC 2344

Document Type RFC - Proposed Standard (May 1998; No errata)
Obsoleted by RFC 3024
Last updated 2013-03-02
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Network Working Group                              G. Montenegro, Editor
Request for Comments: 2344                        Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Category: Standards Track                                       May 1998

                    Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Mobile IP uses tunneling from the home agent to the mobile node's
   care-of address, but rarely in the reverse direction.  Usually, a
   mobile node sends its packets through a router on the foreign
   network, and assumes that routing is independent of source address.
   When this assumption is not true, it is convenient to establish a
   topologically correct reverse tunnel from the care-of address to the
   home agent.

   This document proposes backwards-compatible extensions to Mobile IP
   in order to support topologically correct reverse tunnels.  This
   document does not attempt to solve the problems posed by firewalls
   located between the home agent and the mobile node's care-of address.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................   2
   1.1. Terminology ...............................................   3
   1.2. Assumptions ...............................................   4
   1.3. Justification .............................................   4
   2. Overview ....................................................   4
   3. New Packet Formats ..........................................   5
   3.1. Mobility Agent Advertisement Extension ....................   5
   3.2. Registration Request ......................................   5
   3.3. Encapsulating Delivery Style Extension ....................   6
   3.4. New Registration Reply Codes ..............................   7
   4. Changes in Protocol Behavior ................................   8
   4.1. Mobile Node Considerations ................................   8

Montenegro                  Standards Track                     [Page 1]
RFC 2344            Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP             May 1998

   4.1.1. Sending Registration Requests to the Foreign Agent ......   8
   4.1.2. Receiving Registration Replies from the Foreign Agent ...   9
   4.2. Foreign Agent Considerations ..............................   9
   4.2.1. Receiving Registration Requests from the Mobile Node ...   10
   4.2.2. Relaying Registration Requests to the Home Agent .......   10
   4.3. Home Agent Considerations ................................   10
   4.3.1. Receiving Registration Requests from the Foreign Agent .   11
   4.3.2. Sending Registration Replies to the Foreign Agent ......   11
   5. Mobile Node to Foreign Agent Delivery Styles ...............   12
   5.1. Direct Delivery Style ....................................   12
   5.1.1. Packet Processing ......................................   12
   5.1.2. Packet Header Format and Fields ........................   12
   5.2. Encapsulating Delivery Style .............................   13
   5.2.1 Packet Processing .......................................   13
   5.2.2. Packet Header Format and Fields ........................   14
   5.3. Support for Broadcast and Multicast Datagrams ............   15
   5.4. Selective Reverse Tunneling ..............................   15
   6. Security Considerations ....................................   16
   6.1. Reverse-tunnel Hijacking and Denial-of-Service Attacks ...   16
   6.2. Ingress Filtering ........................................   17
   7. Acknowledgements ...........................................   17
   References ....................................................   17
   Editor and Chair Addresses ....................................   18
   Full Copyright Statement ......................................   19

1. Introduction

   Section 1.3 of the Mobile IP specification [1] lists the following
   assumption:

      It is assumed that IP unicast datagrams are routed based on the
      destination address in the datagram header (i.e., not by source
      address).

   Because of security concerns (for example, IP spoofing attacks), and
   in accordance with RFC 2267 [8] and CERT [3] advisories to this
   effect, routers that break this assumption are increasingly more
   common.

   In the presence of such routers, the source and destination IP
   address in a packet must be topologically correct. The forward tunnel
   complies with this, as its endpoints (home agent address and care-of
   address) are properly assigned addresses for their respective
   locations. On the other hand, the source IP address of a packet
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